ACERVO

Publicaciones: Elsevier B.V.

Community managed forests and forest protected areas: An assessment of their conservation effectiveness across the tropics

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Sinopsis:

This paper assesses the role of protected and community managed forests for the long term maintenance of forest cover in the tropics. Through a meta-analysis of published case-studies, we compare land use/cover change data for these two broad types of forest management and assess their performance in maintaining forest cover. Case studies included 40 protected areas and 33 community managed forests from the peer reviewed literature. A statistical comparison of annual deforestation rates and a Qualitative Comparative Analysis were conducted. We found that as a whole, community managed forests presented lower and less variable annual deforestation rates than protected forests. We consider that a more resilient and robust forest conservation strategy should encompass a regional vision with different land use types in which social and economic needs of local inhabitants, as well as tenure rights and local capacities, are recognized. Further research for understanding institutional arrangements that derive from local governance in favor of tropical forest conservation is recommended.

 

Autores: Porter-Bolland, Luciana / Ellis, Edward A / Guariguata, Manuel R. / Ruiz-Mallén, isabel / Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta / Reyes-García, Victoria

Enchantment And Disenchantment: The Role Of Community In Natural Resource Conservation

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Sinopsis:

The poor conservation outcomes that followed decades of intrusive resource management strategies and planned development have forced policy makers and scholars to reconsider the role of community in resource use and conservation. In a break from previous work on development which considered communities to hinder progressive social change, current writing champions the role of community in bringing about decentralization, meaningful participation, cultural autonomy, and conservation (Chambers and McBeth, 1992; Chitere, 1994; Etzioni, 1996). But despite its recent popularity, the concept of community rarely receives the attention or analysis it needs from those concerned with resource use and management.
We seek to redress this omission by investigating -community- in work concerning resource conservation and management. We begin by exploring the conceptual origins of the community, especially as it relates to writings on resource use. The ensuing analysis reveals that three aspects of community are most important to those who advocate a positive role for communities in resource management -community as a small spatial unit, as a homogenous social structure, and as shared norms. We suggest a more political approach. Community, we argue, must be examined in the context of conservation by focusing on the multiple interests and actors within communities, on how these actors influence decisionmaking, and on the internal and external institutions that shape the decision-making process. A focus on institutions rather than -community- is likely to be more fruitful for those interested in community-based natural resource management. We conclude by suggesting that research and policy move away from universalist claims either for or against community. Instead, community-based conservation initiatives must be founded on images of community that recognize their internal di€erences and processes, their relations with external actors, and the institutions that a€ect both.

Autores: Arun Agrawal y Clark C. Gibson

Implementing REDD+: lessons from analysis of forest governance

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Sinopsis:

The anticipated benefits and co-benefits of REDD+ generated considerable enthusiasm and momentum prior to the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, and the lack of agreement of a global mechanism for REDD+ at that Conference generated corresponding disappoint-ment. However, experience from earlier forest-related initiatives, and from recent research in environmental and forest governance, suggest ways forward for REDD+ even in the absence of a post-2012 climate agreement. Comparative studies reveal that forest-rich developing countries already have formal forest management requirements that are at least as demanding as those of industrialised countries, and that poor implementation of these requirements is the key constraint to achieving forest conservation and sustainable forest management goals. Experience suggests that mechanisms that focus on enabling the implementation of these already-agreed requirements, and that draw from the lessons of forest certification as well as from PES schemes, are most likely to deliver positive outcomes for both forests and local stakeholders. Together, these lessons suggests that progress can be made towards the REDD+ outcomes envisaged by the Copenhagen Accord by supporting implementation of existing national and sub-national forest policies in ways that are consistent with the principles of good forest governance.

Autores: Peter J. Kanowski, Constance L. McDermott, Benjamin W. Cashore

Governance features for successful REDD+ projects organization

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Sinopsis:

Projects aiming at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) still account for a small share of the voluntary carbon market. Indeed, although carbon buyers claimed REDD credits to be the most desirable ones, and despite the steps forward for a REDD+ approval under the UNFCCC, REDD+ project development appears problematic. Good governance is often a prerequisite for the development of a REDD+ project.
With the scope of determining the governance features for a successful REDD+ project, the research pro-poses a logical framework for REDD+ project governance assessment. Starting from the Governance of For-ests Initiative Toolkit developed by the World Resource Institute, a set of REDD+ governance indicators are selected and applied in two Peruvian REDD+field case studies. The methodology is then tested on REDD+ projects where no primary information is available.
REDD+ projects are found to be successful when transparency and accountability are carefully addressed and when forest management and land use planning are endorsed. In this sense the Forest Stewardship Council certification appears to be an important pre-condition for the success of REDD+.

Autores: Davide Pettenella y Lucio Brotto

Compatibility of timber and non-timber forest product management in natural tropical forests: Perspectives, challenges, and opportunities

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Sinopsis:

Tropical forests could satisfy multiple demands for goods and services both for present and future generations. Yet integrated approaches to natural forest management remain elusive across the tropics. In this paper we examine one combination of uses: selective harvesting of timber and non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. We analyze the current status of this combination and speculate on prospects and challenges regarding: (i) resource inventory, (ii) ecology and silviculture, (iii) conflict in the use of multipurpose tree species, (iv) wildlife conservation and use, (v) tenure, and (vi) product certification. Our conclusions remain preliminary due to the relative paucity of published studies and lessons learned on what has worked and what has not in the context of integrated management for timber and NTFPs. We propose at least three ways where further research is merited. One, in improving ‘opportunistic’ situations driven by selective timber harvesting that also enhance NTFP values. Two, to explicitly enhance both timber and NTFP values through targeted management interventions. Three, to explicitly assess biophysical, social, regulatory and institutional aspects so that combined benefits are maximized. Interventions for enhancing the compatibility of timber and NTFP extraction must be scaled in relation to the size of the area being managed, applied timber harvesting intensities, and the dynamics of multi-actor, forest partnerships (e.g., between the private sector and local communities). In addition, training and education issues may have to be re-crafted with multiple-use management approaches inserted into tropical forestry curricula.

Autores: Manuel R. Guariguata, Carmen García Fernández, Douglas Sheil, Robert Nasi, Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui, Peter Cronkleton y Verina Ingram

When collective action and tenure allocations collide: Outcomes from community forests in Quintana Roo, Mexico and Peten, Guatemala

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Based on a comparative case study of four community forestry enterprises in Guatemala and Mexico, we examine the relationship between user group characteristics and state allocation of tenure bundles. Using Schlager and Ostrom’s four levels of tenure bundles and collective action theory, we illustrate how tenure bundles and collective action costs interact to either promote or create disincentives for conservation and communal economic benefits. We suggest that in communities with high costs for collective action, a tenure bundle that includes management, withdrawal and exclusion rights yet omits alienation rights may be optimal for community forestry. We also demonstrate how unclear allocation of rights can result in local interpretations of land rights that do support collective action.

 

Autores: Barsimantov, James / Racelis, Alex / Biedenweg, Kelly / Digiano, Maria

Forest cover change and land tenure change in Mexico’s avocado region: Is community forestry related to reduced deforestation for high value crops?

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Sinopsis:

Forest cover change in highland pine-oak forests of Michoacán, Mexico is due to a process of conversion of natural forests to avocado orchards. Privately-owned avocado orchards are found on land that was common forest before the 1992 Reform of the Mexican Constitution.We ask how forest cover change was facilitated by policy changes that affected land tenure rules and existing community forestry programs. We use a comparative case study of four communities, an analysis of forest cover change, and interviews and household surveys. Results show that 33.1% of forest cover was lost over a 16-year-period across the region. However, two forestry case study communities lost 7.2% and 15.1% of forest cover, while two adjacent non-forestry communities lost 86.5% and 92.4%, respectively. Interview data show that the Reform of Article 27 combined with the 1992 Forestry Law led to collapse of local governance, illegal division of common forests, and illegal logging in the two non-forestry communities.

 

Autores: Barsimantov, James / Navia Antezana, Jaime

Is community-based forest management more effective than protected areas?

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En este artículo se muestra la importancia del manejo forestal comunitario para la conservación de los bosques, y su efectividad en comparación con las áreas naturales protegidas. El estudio se basa en la comparación de dos zonas adyacentes localizadas en la Península de Yucatán, en las cuales se realizó un análisis del cambio en el uso del suelo y se examinaron diversos factores ambientales, socioeconómicos e institucionales que están asociados con la deforestación en la región. Una de las áreas estudiadas es La Montaña en Hopelchen, Campeche, la cual pertenece a la Reserva de la biósfera de Calakmul y al Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano. La otra área es la Zona Maya en el municipio de Carrillo Puerto, Quintana Roo, en donde existen diferentes empresas comunitarias enfocadas en el manejo forestal. Los resultados muestran que el manejo forestal comunitario puede desempeñar un papel efectivo en la conservación de los bosques.

 

Autores: Ellis, Edward A. / Porter Bolland, Luciana

A spatial analysis of common property deforestation

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Sinopsis:

This paper develops and tests a theory of common property deforestation over space. The model examines both the spatial distribution of forest loss and the total amount of deforestation within a given community, showing how these outcomes are jointly determined. The model equations are estimated in a four-step process usng data from 318 Mexican common properties. In contrast to previous deforstation theories, this paper shows that the allocation of deforestation across space in dependent upon both the absolute and relative queality and location of each hectare of land in the same community and on the overall deforestation decision of the community ¡. Simultaneously, total deforestation depends upon the value of deforested land, which is determined by its physical attributes, as well as the characteristics of the community that affect its collective choice problem.  Smaller group size, higher secondary education, and greater inequality correspond to lower deforestation.

 

Autores: Alix García, Jennifer

A Tale of two communities: Explaining Deforestation in Mexico.

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Sinopsis:

Deforestation policies in Mexico need to recognize heterogeneity in community\’s management schemes. In communities that extract wood from the forest for profit, forestry projects generate funds whose investment in public goods increases the value of standing forest to those not receiving direct dividends from the projects. Increases in such investment help decrease deforestation. In communities with other livelihoods, deforestation decreases with the community´s ability to form a coalition that cooperates in reducing forest clearing. This is easier in smaller communities with more experienced leaders. Anaysis using data collected in 2002 combined with satellite imagery verifies the models predictions.

 

Autores: Alix García, Jennifer / de Janvry, Alain / Sadoulet, Elisabeth

Local perceptions of forest certification for community-based enterprises

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Sinopsis:

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification has been promoted as a way to encourage and recognize community-based forest enterprises (CFEs). However, certification has proved more difficult for CFEs than expected, and few certified operations have achieved the highly anticipated market benefits of certification. This has led to questioning of the compatibility of certification with CFEs, though few studies have directly asked local CFE actors their perceptions on this issue. This study investigates perceptions of certification for two CFEs in Brazil’s western Amazon. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to determine the positive and negative aspects of certification as perceived by community members, their principal support organizations, and other key stakeholders, (2) to identify the relative importance of these perceived positive and negative aspects, and (3) to analyze the differences in perceptions between actors. Data were collected through structured interviews and a review of pertinent documents.
Overall, the most positive aspects were economic and social, and the most negative aspects concerned the certification process and, to a lesser extent, the associated economic expenditures. Community members typically scored the positive aspects higher and the negative aspects lower than the support organizations. This is likely due to differences in roles and vantage points of these actors. In general, informants agreed that positive aspects of certification outweighed negative ones. This stands in contrast to some communities in other parts of Latin America that are contemplating dropping certification.
Two particular conditions may have enabled operations in this study to overcome common constraints for CFEs: (1) membership in a regional producers group, and (2) strong political, technical, and financial support from the state government. Their experiences specifically highlight the need to adapt the certification process for CFEs and demonstrate that obtaining market benefits is possible.

 

Autores: Humphries, Shoana S. / Kainer, Karen A.

Constraints and opportunities for better silvicultural practice in tropical forestry: an interdisciplinary approach

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Sinopsis:

Barriers to successful adoption of novel silvicultural practices are rarely just technical in nature. Simply put, why do some forest users practice better silviculture than others? Diverse perspectives in the social sciences have been brought to bear on this question, but most efforts suffer from theoretical or methodological biases which undermine their utility for answering questions of interest to forest managers and policy-makers. We argue that research on silviculture practice can better serve the needs of policy-makers if it is approached more holistically and with the intention of answering clear questions about why particular users have, or have not adopted desired practices in particular situations. To illustrate this approach, we present three case studies of research on tropical silviculture practice from each of Philippines, Brazilian Amazon and Mexico. Findings from these studies indicate that a variety of factors may influence whether or not silvicultural practices are adopted. These range from characteristics of the local environment and individual users (knowledge, motivation, etc.) to wider geographical, economic and political influences. Forest researchers and policy-makers will better identify key constraints and opportunities for the adoption of silvicultural practices in particular contexts if they proach research with clear questions and an interdisciplinary approach.

 

Autores: Walters, Bradley B. / Sabogal, César / Snook, Laura K. / de Alveida, Everaldo

Community managed forests and forest protected areas: An assessment of their conservation effectiveness across the tropics

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Sinopsis:

This paper assesses the role of protected and community managed forests for the long term maintenance of forest cover in the tropics. Through a meta-analysis of published case-studies, we compare land use/cover change data for these two broad types of forest management and assess their performance in maintaining forest cover. Case studies included 40 protected areas and 33 community managed forests from the peer reviewed literature. A statistical comparison of annual deforestation rates and a Qualitative Comparative Analysis were conducted. We found that as a whole, community managed forests presented lower and less variable annual deforestation rates than protected forests. We consider that a more resilient and robust forest conservation strategy should encompass a regional vision with different land use types in which social and economic needs of local inhabitants, as well as tenure rights and local capacities, are recognized. Further research for understanding institutional arrangements that derive from local governance in favor of tropical forest conservation is recommended.

Autores: Luciana Porter-Bolland, Edward A. Ellis, Manuel R. Guariguata, Isabel Ruiz-Mallén, Simoneta Negrete-Yankelevich, Victoria Reyes-García