ACERVO

Publicaciones: Inglés

Forests, farms and the future of the Lacandon jungle: payments for environmental services in Mexico: 2007-2014

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Sinopsis:

En 2007, los bosques tropicales de Marqués de Comillas, un municipio en la selva Lacandona de México, estaban desapareciendo rápidamente. Agricultores pobres que habían inmigrado a la región en los años 1970 dependían de tumbar el bosque para tener tierra para la agricultura, y estaban cortando más árboles cada año. Después de 1997, la tasa promedio de deforestación aceleró de 4.8% anual, después de estar en 2.7% anual. Para 2005, sólo quedaba el 35% del área forestal del municipio. En 2007, la ex secretaria de Medio Ambiente Julia Carabias decidió actuar. Carabias y su equipo de Natura Mexicana, una organización no gubernamental, se unieron con las comunidades locales para involucrar a participantes en el programa de pago por servicios ambientales de la Comisión Nacional Forestal y encontrar alternativas económicas a la deforestación con fines agrícolas. PSA, que pagaba a los dueños de la tierra que mantenían los árboles, inmediatamente ralentizó la deforestación en las áreas en las que se implementó. El trabajo de Natura Mexicana en educación ambiental, planeación territorial y desarrollo de ecoturismo ayudó a cambiar las actitudes de los agricultores sobre la importancia de proteger las selvas tropicales.

In 2007, the tropical forests of Marqués de Comillas, a municipality in Mexico’s Lacandon jungle, were disappearing rapidly. Poor farmers who had migrated to the region during the 1970s relied on clear-cutting the forest to open up land for agriculture, and they were cutting more and more trees every year. After 1997, the average deforestation rate accelerated to 4.8% per year from 2.7%. By 2005, only 35% of the municipality’s forested area remained. In 2007, former environment minister Julia Carabias decided to take action. Carabias and her team at Natura Mexicana, a nongovernmental organization, joined with local communities to enroll participants in the National Forestry Commission’s payments for environmental services (PES) program and find economic alternatives to clearing the forest for agricultural use. PES, which remunerated landholders who preserved their trees, immediately slowed deforestation in the areas where it was implemented. Natura Mexicana’s work in environmental education, land planning, and ecotourism development helped change farmers’ attitudes about the importance of protecting the rain forest.

Autor: Cameron, Blair

Revisión de la implementación de REDD+ en México

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Sinopsis:

México se ha puesto a la vanguardia en la lucha contra la deforestación y el cambio climático. Mientras en la esfera internacional avanzan los acuerdos para el diseño final del mecanismo de Reducción de Emisiones por Deforestación y Degradación forestal (REDD+), y en la Cumbre de Bonn sobre Cambio Climático se alcanzó ya un preacuerdo, México, con la Comisión Nacional Forestal (Conafor) operando este esfuerzo, tiene una experiencia rica en el tema.

Como una aportación para cumplir con los compromisos y objetivos establecidos por el gobierno mexicano, el Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible realizó una revisión de los Programas Especiales de Acción Temprana REDD+ (PEATREDD+), uno de sus instrumentos más prominentes para disminuir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero de origen forestal.

(Una versión en inglés de este documento se puede consultar aquí / An English version of this document may be found here: Review of REDD+ implementation in Mexico: Analysis of the Special REDD+ Programas in Early Action Areas.)

 

Environmental Policy Integration in Mexico: the case of agricultural policy

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Sinopsis:

Este artículo analiza los pasos que México ha dado hacia la integración de la política ambiental, con especial énfasis en la política agropecuaria. Hasta ahora, el país ha utilizado sobre todo instrumentos comunicativos para alcanzar este fin. Entrevistas semiestructuradas con funcionarios de alto nivel en las secretarías de Medio Ambiente y de Agricultura indican que, aunque estas medidas abren paso para aquellos servidores públicos con la voluntad de implementar el principio de IPA en la política hacia el campo, no logran hacer que las políticas sean obligatoriamente respetuosas del medio ambiente. Pese a ello, los recientes esfuerzos en este sentido han alcanzado cierto éxito. Queda por verse si serán reservadas y fortalecidas por las siguientes administraciones.


 

This paper analyzes steps towards environmental policy integration in Mexico, with special emphasis in agricultural policy. So far, the country has mostly used communicative instruments to reach this aim. Semi-structured interviews with high-ranking officials from the ministries of Agriculture and of the Environment show that even though these measures break ground for public servants with the will to implement the principle of EPI in policy towards the countryside, they fail to make environmentally friendly policies mandatory. Yet, recent efforts to achieve this have attained some success. It remains to be seen if they are preserved and further enhanced by the next administrations.


La versión original de este artículo, en español, puede encontrarse aquí.

Autor: Eugenio Fernández Vázquez

Sustainable rural landscape management in Central Mexico

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Este artículo, escrito por Paulina Deschamps y Lucía Madrid y publicado por la European Tropical Forest Research Network en el número 56 de su publicación informativa, describe el proeycto del Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible en Amanalco, Estado de México.

Reforming forests: from community forests to corporate forestry in Mexico

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Sinopsis:

En este texto, publicado originalmente en el libro Changing Structure of Mexico, Matthew B. Wexler y David Barton Bray analizan dos leyes forestales paradigmáticas, contradictorias entre sí pero aprobadas en menos de una década: la de 1986, centrada en impulsar la silvicultura comunitaria, y la de 1992, aprobada a la par que la reforma salinista del artículo 27 de la Constitución mexicana.

Se presenta esta copia con autorización de los autores.

Forest policies in Mexico

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En este texto, incluido originalmente en el libro Changing structure of Mexico, David Barton Bray y Matthew Wexler revisan brevemente la historia de la política forestal mexicana en el siglo XX, buscando entender las consecuencias que tendría la firma del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN). Iniciando con el impulso a la producción privada durante el alemanismo, pasando por la época de las grandes vedas a finales de los años 1950 y por las siguientes dos décadas, explica la ola reformista de finales de los años 1970 que concluyó con la aprobación de la ley forestal de 1992.

Se incluye esta copia con autorización de los autores.

 

Land for Life Award Winner: Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible versión 14min

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Video ganador del Premio “Land for Life” otorgado por UNCCD del proyecto en Amanalco, Estado de México.

Forestry Observer; Number 12 November 2013

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Sinopsis:

Entailment for the develompent of state MRV systems was initiated.

In the states of QUintana Roo, Yucatan, Campeche, Chiapas and Jalisco are placed CONAFOR´S REDD+ early actions areas.

The Reinforcing REDD+ and South-South cooperation Project of the National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR), participated in a meeting with the Environment State Ministers from five states of the Republic in which are taking place early actions for the Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+).

Vacante CCMSS, Asistente de Contabilidad

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Interesados ponerse en contacto con Guadalupe Hernández, mandar CV al correo ghernandez@ccmss.org.mx

Forestry Observer; number 11 october 2013

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Sinopsis:

The National Forestry Commission, through the Reinforcing REDD+ and South-South cooperation Project, collaborates with government organisms (local and internationals), research centers and non-governmental institutions, in the establishment of an Intensive Carbon Monitoring Sites Network (ICMS) in strategic forest landscapes. The purpose of these sites is to provide precise estimations on carbon stocks and its dynamics, through the integration of methodological approaches that includes also flux towers, forest inventories, satellite images, LiDAR, carbon dynamic models, among others.

Land for Life Award Winner: Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible

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Video ganador del Premio “Land for Life” otorgado por UNCCD del proyecto en Amanalco, Estado de México.

Forestry Observer; Number 10 september 2013

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Sinopsis:

The Reinforcing REDD+ and South-South cooperation Project of the National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR), is working to have a reference level of greenhouse gases emissions in the forest sector in Mexico, that is going to be a key indicator to verify the performance of the mitigation actions that the country will do in the framework of the mechanism for reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+).

UNCCD News

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Actualización bimestral del trabajo de UNCCD.

Community managed forests and forest protected areas: An assessment of their conservation effectiveness across the tropics

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Sinopsis:

This paper assesses the role of protected and community managed forests for the long term maintenance of forest cover in the tropics. Through a meta-analysis of published case-studies, we compare land use/cover change data for these two broad types of forest management and assess their performance in maintaining forest cover. Case studies included 40 protected areas and 33 community managed forests from the peer reviewed literature. A statistical comparison of annual deforestation rates and a Qualitative Comparative Analysis were conducted. We found that as a whole, community managed forests presented lower and less variable annual deforestation rates than protected forests. We consider that a more resilient and robust forest conservation strategy should encompass a regional vision with different land use types in which social and economic needs of local inhabitants, as well as tenure rights and local capacities, are recognized. Further research for understanding institutional arrangements that derive from local governance in favor of tropical forest conservation is recommended.

 

Autores: Porter-Bolland, Luciana / Ellis, Edward A / Guariguata, Manuel R. / Ruiz-Mallén, isabel / Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta / Reyes-García, Victoria

Forestry Observer; Number 5

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Sinopsis:

The National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR), through the Reinforcing REDD+ and South-South Cooperation Project and the Alliance Mexico REDD+ through the Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC), work together on common for developing inputs that allow moving forward in the building of the national system of Measurement, Report and Verification (MRV).

Forestry Observer; Number 4

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The collaboration between CONAFOR and ejido Felipe Carrillo Puerto generate new skills and jobs.

With the technical support of Uyoolche Civil Association, was established an intensive monitoring site of forest carbon in Quintana Roo

Forestry Observer; Number 3

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Sinopsis:

The Strengthening REDD+ and South-South Cooperation Project has initiated the operation of intensive monitoring sites, by signing cooperation agreements with Yucatan’s Scientific Research Center (CICY), and U´yool´ché A.C.; and planned to implement more of this sites in 2013 with the cooperation of The South Border College (ECOSUR), the Postgraduate College (COLPOS), and the National Commission for Protected Natural Areas (CONANP).

Safeguarding Forests and People

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Global greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and with them global temperatures. Forests are both impacted by the changing climate and part of the solution for mitigating and adapting to these changes. Forests play a role in reducing emissions by sequestering and storing carbon. They help mitigate the impacts of climate change by helping to regulate microclimate conditions, water quantity and quality, and soil and water temperature. Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (hereinafter Parties) have recognized the importance of forests and created REDD+ as a result. REDD+ aims to recognize and support developing countries that reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conserve and enhance carbon stocks, and sustainably manage forests. Governments in developing countries are now grappling with how to effectively participate in this emerging global initiative. During the design of REDD+, Parties recognized that REDD+ actions will likely not be sustainable unless they account for the role of local people and ecosystems. As a result, Parties defined seven “safeguards” to guide implementation of REDD+. Governments in REDD+ countries are tasked with providing information on how these safeguards will be “addressed and respected.”1 One option is to develop a national system focused on implementing the safeguards and to provide information on how this system is functioning. The purpose of this report is to support this process by providing a framework for what a robust national system to implement the REDD+ safeguards would include.

 

Autores: Daviet, Florence / Larsen, Gaia

Canadian Journal Of Development Studies. (Trans)national Agribusiness Capital And Land Market Dynamics In Mexico

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Sinopsis:

This study analyses Mexico´s agrarian structure and the different forms of property rights applied to the country´s 196.7 million hectares of land. The need to consider all of the different forms through which land is transferred is due to the existence of numerous legal instruments that regulate property size and the rights of foreigners to own rural land in Mexico. The study also addresses the issue of contract farming. While not directly concerned with the land market, contract farming is a mechanism that allows national and international capital to gain control over large tracts of land by establishing agreements with producers that capture their production or by establishing themselves as a single marketing channel. Mining concessions are also addressed, given their sharp increase and also their tremendous social and environmental impact. Over the last decade, the mining concessions on rural lands have increased significantly and have generated conflicts with landowners. The study also addresses the issue of budget allocations for the rural sector, which have primarily benefited agribusiness and well-capitalised producers. In other words, subsidies have favoured the concentration of land in both direct and indirect ways. Finally, the study looks at the perceptions of rural actors.

 

Autores:  Robles Berlanga, Héctor Manuel

Special feature: sustainability on the U.S./Mexico border

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Sinopsis:

Old-growth forests are biologically and ecologically valuable systems that are disappearing worldwide at a rapid rate. México still holds large areas covered by temperate forests in the mountains of the Sierra Madre Occidental, but few of these retain old-growth characteristics. We studied four sites with remnant old-growth forests in Mesa de las Guacamayas, a site in the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Chihuahua, to assess their composition, structure, and age characteristics. Overstory tree densities and basal areas at each site were based on measurements of all trees .1.3 m tall. The overstory was
dominated by large Pinus durangensis, P. strobiformis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii (270–335 trees ha1, basal area 24–42 m2 ha1), with a subcanopy formed mostly of oaks. This species composition, combined with the lack of vertical structural development, and thus of fuel ladders, suggests that these forests are relatively resistant to severe wildfire. We evaluated forest attributes in the context of local fire regimes and regional climatic patterns, and found that frequent disturbance by surface fires has been part of the study sites’ histories for at least 250 years. While climate was a driver of fire regimes historically in this mountain range, humans appear to have played a role in interruptions of the fire regime in the second half of the 20th century. Age distributions showed recruitment to the canopy over ;250 years, while fires in the four sites recurred every 6–12 years. Temporary interruption of the fire regime in the mid-20th century at three sites was associated with increased tree establishment, especially by broadleaved species. One site had an uninterrupted fire regime and showed continuous tree establishment, consistent with the self-reinforcing role of frequent fire in regulating live and dead fuel loads. Remnant old-growth forests such as those we sampled are becoming increasingly rare in the Sierra Madre Occidental. The biodiversity and ecological processes that they support are highly threatened and their conservation must be made a priority in the U.S.-México borderlands.

 

Autores: Cortés Montaño, Citlali / Fulé, Peter Z. / Falk, Donal A. / Villanueva Díaz, José / Yocom, Larissa L.

The Little Forest Finance Book

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Sinopsis:

The Little Forest Finance Book’s overarching aim is to catalyse an increase in the finance flowing towards forest-friendly development.
It is a reference for decision makers and project stakeholders within governments, NGOs, the private sector, and forest communities who want to understand where forest finance can be raised, how it can best be managed, and the types of activities that it enables.
It seeks to demystify the forest finance landscape, and presents a clear framework of realistic and widely applicable options for decision makers to catalyse further action and debate in this field.
It is grounded in reality rather than theory, and draws on numerous case studies to indicate emerging ideas, best practice, and innovative ways of thinking about forest finance for the future.
As a non-partisan analysis, the Little Forest Finance Book does not favour one proposal over another. We do hope, however, that our work will aid understanding and encourage collaborative dialogue on this vitally important area of research.

 

Autores: Oakes, Nick / Leggett, Matt

Keeping REDD+ clean a step-by-step guide to preventing corruption

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Sinopsis:

Forest carbon accounting is relatively new and very complex. As international discussions and agreements continue the policy landscape is rapidly changing. It is within this challenging context that this manual has been developed, to help interested parties to understand and address associated risks.
Users will learn how to identify corruption risks and instruments to help address these risks within the:
• Development of national Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) action plans and strategies
• Implementation of REDD+ and other forest carbon projects
The manual’s scope does not extend to corruption risks at the international level. Rather it is deliberately focused on processes that occur in country, to facilitate the participation of national and local groups in informing national policy, planning and project implementation.
This tool is principally designed for civil society actors who may work with other NGOs, governments and the private sector to help design systems that are transparent, accountable, responsive and thus effective. It will help inform and guide forest carbon risk assessments, but should be adapted by users to fit their country contexts. The timeframe and scope of this process will vary from place to place, but it is important that all users clearly identify their objectives prior to starting it.

The Green Climate Fund: Views from the Americas

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Sinopsis:

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) was established at the 2009 Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change in Copenhagen to handle the Convention’s financial mechanism. It has plans to provide $100 billion per year by 2020, to support climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. The GCF is the closest attempt to provide a binding global agreement on climate change, and given that all countries will have equal decision-making power the Fund will allow the developing world to play a meaningful role in designing climate change solutions, based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. The prompt implementation of this Fund is very important for the Latin American countries as it represents the financial support needed to tackle climate change.

Enchantment And Disenchantment: The Role Of Community In Natural Resource Conservation

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Sinopsis:

The poor conservation outcomes that followed decades of intrusive resource management strategies and planned development have forced policy makers and scholars to reconsider the role of community in resource use and conservation. In a break from previous work on development which considered communities to hinder progressive social change, current writing champions the role of community in bringing about decentralization, meaningful participation, cultural autonomy, and conservation (Chambers and McBeth, 1992; Chitere, 1994; Etzioni, 1996). But despite its recent popularity, the concept of community rarely receives the attention or analysis it needs from those concerned with resource use and management.
We seek to redress this omission by investigating -community- in work concerning resource conservation and management. We begin by exploring the conceptual origins of the community, especially as it relates to writings on resource use. The ensuing analysis reveals that three aspects of community are most important to those who advocate a positive role for communities in resource management -community as a small spatial unit, as a homogenous social structure, and as shared norms. We suggest a more political approach. Community, we argue, must be examined in the context of conservation by focusing on the multiple interests and actors within communities, on how these actors influence decisionmaking, and on the internal and external institutions that shape the decision-making process. A focus on institutions rather than -community- is likely to be more fruitful for those interested in community-based natural resource management. We conclude by suggesting that research and policy move away from universalist claims either for or against community. Instead, community-based conservation initiatives must be founded on images of community that recognize their internal di€erences and processes, their relations with external actors, and the institutions that a€ect both.

Autores: Arun Agrawal y Clark C. Gibson

The Treasure of the Sierra Madre: Ecology of old-growth forests in Chihuahua, Mexico

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Sinopsis:

Old-growth forests are valuable but declining worldwide. México still holds large areas covered by temperate forests in the mountains of the Sierra Madre Occidental, but few of these retain old-growth characteristics. These forests provide habitat for Thick-billed Parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha: Psittacidae; “guacamaya”), a CITES-listed endangered species. We studied four old-growth remnants in Mesa de las Guacamayas, a site in the Sierra Madre Occidental in Chihuahua, México, to assess the composition, structure, and age characteristics of the overstory, relating it to fire histories and continental and regional climatic data. We linked our findings to the habitat needs of Thick-billed Parrots reported by the literature, and we studied the β-diversity of the understory plant communities at these sites and related them to the composition, cover, density and fire regimes of the overstory.
We found that frequent disturbance by surface fires appears to have contributed to maintaining open, diverse, and productive forests for at least 250 years. While climate was a historical driver of the fire regimes in this mountain range, humans appear to have played a role in the fire regime interruptions of the second half of the 20th century. We found large live trees (>60 cm DBH) in the four sampling sites. We also found densities of five or more large snags per ha-1 in two of the sampling sites, which are considered good nesting habitat conditions for Thick-billed Parrots. Pinus strobiformis, an important food source for the parrots, was common in three of the four sites. We also detected close interactions between understory, overstory and fire regimes in the sampled old-growth forests. We did not encounter non-native plant species, which suggests that β-diversity of the plant communities and maintenance of the ecological process of fire could play a “shielding” role in preventing invasions.
We also collected data about overstory age and structure, and understory cover and composition in temperate pine-oak forests inside Parque Nacional Cascada de Basaseachi, and outside the park, in a logged forest. Both of these sites are located in central Chihuahua, in the Sierra Madre Occidental range. We used these datasets to evaluate the effectiveness of the park at conserving plant species richness and diversity. We concluded that the forest plant communities inside the park are more species rich and diverse than outside the park. We proposed a source-sink model in which regional biodiversity conservation goals could be achieved or magnified by combining alternative approaches, such as community-based management with traditional models, such as protected areas.

Autora: Citlali Cortés Montaño

Mexico’s community forest enterprises provide a proven pathway to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

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Sinopsis:

The global attention now being directed towards REDD+ as a strategy for combating carbon emissions due to deforestation and forest degradation is focused on increasing the value of forests through carbon markets. This is crucial and must be pursued. However, forest carbon markets are still incipient and await the conclusion of global climate accords before they can flourish. The Mexican experience demonstrates that the same goals—reduction of deforestation and forest degradation, expansion of forest cover, conservation of forest and biodiversity—can be achieved through CFEs, particularly for commercial timber production. CFEs also generate thousands of jobs for local communities, something that PAs have generally not been able to do. The potential of Mexican community forestry to contribute to climate change mitigation has been recognised for some time (Klooster and Masera 2000). A comprehensive study of the potential for carbon sequestration by different land uses in Mexico found that the ‘most cost-effective method for sequestering carbon appears to be the improved management of natural forest on communal lands’ (De Jong et al.2000). If REDD+ can develop mechanisms to encourage the successful existing models of climate change mitigation and adaptation seen in CFEs, this will indeed be a ‘plus’.

 

Autores: Barton Bray, David

Promoting Community Forestry Enterprises in National REDD+ Strategies: A Business Approach

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Sinopsis:

Community forestry and related small and medium forest enterprises (SMFEs) can contribute towards the achievement of REDD+ goals, since they can promote sustainable use and conservation of forests and,  therefore,  a reduction in forest-related carbon emissions. Additionally, they can improve the quality of life of forest-dependant people by generating alternative sources of income and employment. However, SMFEs often face a number of challenges, including non-conducive policy environments, inadequate business skills, and moreover, limited access to financial services. In this paper, we propose to direct a portion of REDD+ readiness efforts towards promoting the generation of an enabling environment for SMFEs that includes: the construction of  an adequate Business Environment (BE), the provision of Business Development Services (BDS) and better access to Financial Services (FS). With the application of this framework, SMFEs will be more likely to proliferate and succeed, leading to enhanced community resilience and empowerment, in addition to increasing the likelihood of forest carbon stock permanence and the long term achievement of REDD+ goals. Opportunities and challenges of applying this approach in Latin America are discussed.

Autores: María Fernanda Tomaselli y Reem Hajjar

Realising REDD+, National Strategy and policy options

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Sinopsis:

Putting this book together has – at times – felt as challenging as realising REDD+itself, with challenges in both horizontal and vertical coordination. The only reason it has succeeded is the dedication of more than 100 people who have contributed to the book as authors, reviewers and members of the production team.
This book is an early output of a Global Comparative Study on REDD, coordinated by CIFOR and involving a number of partner organisations and individuals. The ideas and format of the book emerged through discussions within this project. Coeditors Maria Brockhaus, Markku Kanninen, Erin Sills, William D. Sunderlin and Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff, have given valuable input all along.
The book is the collective output of 59 authors of chapters and boxes. Insofar as this book will become useful in realising REDD+it will be because of the quality of the chapters. The cooperation with authors has been a pleasure: Everyone responded with alacrity to very tight deadlines and requests for revisions from reviewers and editors.
Therese Dokken has been a very able editorial assistant during this process, keeping track of the 100+reviews, 150+chapter drafts, 553 references, and supporting materials. At CIFOR in Bogor, Indonesia, Edith Johnson has been the managing editor, organising language and copy editing and keeping an eye on the overall process until the final product. Gideon Suharyanto took the lead in ensuring the book meets CIFOR’s high printing standards. Production staff also included Benoit Lecomte, Vidya Fitrian, Daniel Rahadian and Catur Wahyu. Among the many individuals that have contributed, Therese, Edith and Gideon deserve the podium positions in terms of (late) hours invested and commitment.
All chapters were thoroughly edited by Sandra Child, Rodney Lynn, Imogen Badgery-Parker, Guy Manners and Edith Johnson.
In addition to the chapter authors, a number of people responded to our initial survey of key issues and challenges in REDD+implementation or reviewed one or more chapters: Jan Abrahamsen, André Aquino, Odd Arnesen, Juergen Blaser, Ivan Bond, Benoit Bosquet, Timothy Boyle, Carol Colfer, Esteve Corbera, Andreas Dahl-Jørgensen, Michael Dutschke, Paul Ferraro, Denis Gautier, Terje Gobakken, Xavier Haro, Jonathan Haskett, Jeffrey Hatcher, Bente Herstad, John Hudson, William Hyde, Hans Olav Ibrekk, Said Iddi, Per Fredrik Pharo Ilsaas, Peter Aarup Iversen, Ivar Jørgensen, David Kaimowitz, Katia Karousakis, Alain Karsenty, Sjur Kasa, Omaliss Keo, Metta Kongphan-apirak , Liwei Lin, Henrik Lindhjem, Cyril Loisel, Asbjørn Løvbræk, William Magrath, Vincent Medjibe, Inger Næss, Jordan Oestreicher, Vemund Olsen, Pablo Pacheco, Steve Panfil, Ravi Prahbu, Claudia Romero, Jeffrey Sayer, Jolien Schure, Haddy J. Sey, Sheona Shackleton, Alexander Shenkin, Toby Janson-Smith, Tina Søreide, Andreas Tveteraas, Jerry Vanclay, Pål Vedeld, Joseph Veldman, Christina Voigt, Chunfeng Wang, Andy White, Reinhardt Wolf and Ragnar Øygard.
Funding for the production of the book has been provided by the Norwegian International Climate and Forest Initiative, through the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad). Additional funding for the Global Comparative Study on REDD is provided by the Australian Agency for International Development, the UK Department for International Development, the European Commission, the Department for International Development Cooperation of Finland, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Program on Forests, the US Agency for International Development and the US Department of Agriculture.
Bogor, Indonesia, and Ås, Norway
18 November 2009
Arild Angelsen

 

Autores: Angelsen, Arild

Deep REDD+: lessons from a South-South-North collaboration

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Global debates about reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and promoting conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), emphasise the need for strategies to build on existing knowledge. IIED helped facilitate a collaboration between Mozambique and Brazil to do just this. The South–South partnership shared expertise, created a broad, multi-institutional REDD+ working group including national and international organisations, and consulted over 1,300 key actors at national, provincial and local levels. The group has produced an approved REDD+ readiness preparation plan (RPP) and a draft national REDD+ strategy, and chosen six pilot sites to test different aspects of REDD+ in Mozambique.

 

Autores: Nhantumbo, Isilda

Beyond rhetoric: South-South collaboration for REDD+

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Sinopsis:

Global debates about reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and promoting conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) emphasise the need for strategies to build on existing knowledge. In one example of South-South collaboration to do just this, IIED has helped facilitate a Mozambique-Brazil partnership to share expertise and create a unique REDD+ working group. The initiative provides key lessons for other countries contemplating South-South collaboration on REDD+, including the need for charismatic champions, continuity in government representation, and integration across sectors.

 

Autores: Nhantumbo, Isilda / Macqueen, Duncan

His REDD+, her REDD+: how integrating gender can improve readiness

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To change the ways people use forested land, we need to ask questions about the roles of men, women and children. Nearly fifty countries have begun preparing for readiness to reduce emissions from land use and land use changes under the UN-REDD and Forest Carbon Partnership Facility processes. Because gender disparities profoundly shape agriculture and other land use, REDD+ readiness plans should not only avoid harming women and other marginalised groups, but actively seek to address their needs and harness their strengths. Different genders and generations play different roles in value chains for products that use — or conserve — forest resources. Analysing these value chains provides the data to improve interventions. But planners also need to consider gender differences in control of resources, knowledge, decision-making structures and distribution of benefits.

 

Autores: Nhantumbo, Isilda / Chiwona Karltun, Linley

Investing in locally controlled forestry; natural protection for people and planet

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Forests mean different things to different people. For some, they are a haven — somewhere to go to marvel at the wonder of nature. For others, they are a home and source of livelihood and culture. But whether we live in concrete cities or tropical jungles, forests are vital to the survival and wellbeing of each and every one of us. They purify the air we breathe, protect and clean the water we drink, and keep our planet cool and habitable.
The earliest humans gathered food and made their dwellings in ancient forests. Today, we still rely on forests for food, fuel, shelter, medicine and fun. But, with a global population of seven billion wanting to consume an ever-growing mass of goods, our demands are far more exacting. Every day in the life of the modern consumer includes a myriad of hidden demands on the world’s forests. From the wood in your floorboards or the paper on your desk to the cocoa in your cup, the palm oil in your face cream or the cinnamon in your spice rack, forests provide the raw ingredients for many of our daily desires. The profit potential of catering to this insatiable appetite is huge — global trade in primary wood products (such as pulp, plywood and lumber) alone is worth an estimated US$235 billion, and demands for energy and food far exceed this.
But it comes at a price. Since 1990, the area of old-growth forests has decreased by 300 million hectares — an area larger than Argentina. Deforestation could account for the loss of as many as 100 species a day. And it is a major source of the carbon emissions that are driving climate change.
Excessive global consumption is eating into a dwindling resource base, with current patterns exceeding the Earth’s capacity to provide natural resources and absorb waste by more than 50 per cent.

How can we ensure that forests survive the squeeze? We believe the answer lies in putting commercial control of forests into the hands of local people, who generally value forests for more than cash or commodities alone.

In this booklet we examine the thinking behind investing in such locally controlled forestry. We explore how forests are valued by local people; show why forests thrive under local control; and consider how policymakers, banks and businesses can invest in the idea.

 

Autores: Macqueen, Duncan / deMarsh, Peter / Shyam Pandey, Ghan / Castro Diaz, Estebancio / Robinson, Lucile / Lewis, Sian

A facilitator’s toolkit

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The goal of this toolkit is to help supporters of small and medium forest enterprises (SMFEs) work more effectively. We have written this toolkit for ‘facilitators’, for example donors at the international level and, most impor-tantly, government extension services and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) at the national level. We have not written this toolkit for enterprises – although they may find some of the materials in component three useful.
We have arranged the toolkit in a series of self-explanatory modules (or tools) for different elements of SMFE support divided into three components. We begin in component one with broad international considerations on setting up capacity building programmes for SMFE support (primarily aimed at donors). We then move in component two to considerations on national level planning and capacity building, before providing in component three more hands-on advice for direct facilitation activities. The idea is that practitioners at any level can dip into sections that catch their eye, and those unfamiliar with enterprise support can read through the toolkit in a logical way.
Each of the sixteen modules (or tools) provides step-by-step guidance, followed by practical tips based on our personal experiences. We have also included a section pointing the reader to other useful manuals and tools already in existence. At the end of this toolkit is a reference list and a glossary of terms.
We invite readers to send the lead editor (Duncan Macqueen, email: duncan.macqueen@iied.org) examples of their own experiences in this field. We hope that these will enhance the quality of the guidance in any subsequent updates of this toolkit.

 

Autores:  Macqueen, D. (ed.), Baral, S., Chakrabarti, L., Dangal, S., du Plessis, P., Griffith, A., Grouwels, S., Gyawali, S., Heney, J., Hewitt, D., Kamara, Y., Katwal, P., Magotra, R., Pandey, S.S., Panta, N., Subedi, B. and Vermeulen, S

The Role of Parliaments in REDD+ Financial Architecture: The cases of Brazil and Mexico

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Deforestation and forest degradation are among the main anthropogenic contributors to climate change. REDD+ has emerged in the international climate negotiations as an effective economic instrument with which to internalise market failures deriving from deforestation and forest degradation, plus delivering positive social outcomes. Brazil and Mexico are currently designing their national strategies by which the scheme is to be adopted. Yet, one of the political and academic questions than remains unsolved is how to build up REDD+ financial architecture, given that joint synergies between national and international, public and private funds are required to fully operationalise REDD+ in the countries. In this context, parliaments play an important role in providing regulatory answers to promote foreign and private financial flows. This dissertation analyses the areas whereby the Brazilian and the Mexican Congresses can add to REDD+ financial architecture by contrasting current financial concerns, as perceived by key actors engaged in REDD+ dynamics (government, civil society, private sector and academia), with relevant national pieces of legislation. Semi-structured interviews with the countries’ key REDD+ actors were undertaken alongside a legal analysis. The results indicate that insufficient funds, lack of transparency, unclear liability and property rights, as well as excessive bureaucracy, are Brazil’s major financial concerns, which have already found echoes in the new regulatory advancements. In the Mexican case, given its community-based forestry configuration, REDD+ actors perceive, apart from transparency and implementation capacities, burdensome fiscal schemes and policy harmonisation as the main financial concerns. The study concludes that, since all financial aspects are intertwined, the degree by which parliaments can provide strong bricks to REDD+ financial architecture depends on how responsive they are to integrate REDD+ national particularities into harmonised regulations – and not isolated pieces of legislation -and to understand the arising synergies between laws at the pace REDD+’s donors’ and investors’ expectations are evolving.

Autora: Thalía Viveros Uehara

Green Grabbing: a new appropriation of nature?

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Across the world, \”green grabbing\” – the appropriation of land and resources for environmental ends – is an emerging process of deep and growing significance. The vigorous debate on ‘land grabbing’ already highlights instances where \”green\” credentials are called upon to justify appropriations of land for food or fuel – as where large tracts of land are acquired not just for \”more efficient farming\” or \”food security\”, but also to \”alleviate pressure on forests\”. In other cases, however, environmental green agendas are the core drivers and goals of grabs – whether linked to biodiversity conservation, biocarbon sequestration, biofuels, ecosystem services, ecotourism or \”offsets\” related to any and all of these. In some cases these involve the wholesale alienation of land, and in others the restructuring of rules and authority in the access, use and management of resources that may have profoundly alienating effects. Green grabbing builds on well-known histories of colonial and neo-colonial resource alienation in the name of the environment – whether for parks, forest reserves or to halt assumed destructive local practices. Yet it involves novel forms of valuation, commodification and markets for pieces and aspects of nature, and an extraordinary new range of actors and alliances – as pension funds and venture capitalists, commodity traders and consultants, GIS service providers and business entrepreneurs, ecotourism companies and the military, green activists and anxious consumers among others find once-unlikely common interests. This collection draws new theorisation together with cases from African, Asian and Latin American settings, and links critical studies of nature with critical agrarian studies, to ask: To what extent and in what ways do \”green grabs\” constitute new forms of appropriation of nature?
How and when do circulations of green capital become manifest in actual
appropriations on the ground – through what political and discursive
dynamics? What are the implications for ecologies, landscapes and livelihoods? And who is gaining and who is losing – how are agrarian social relations, rights and authority being restructured, and in whose interests?

Autores: James Fairhead, Melissa Leach y Ian Scoones

Compatibility of timber and non-timber forest product management in natural tropical forests: Perspectives, challenges, and opportunities

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Tropical forests could satisfy multiple demands for goods and services both for present and future generations. Yet integrated approaches to natural forest management remain elusive across the tropics. In this paper we examine one combination of uses: selective harvesting of timber and non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. We analyze the current status of this combination and speculate on prospects and challenges regarding: (i) resource inventory, (ii) ecology and silviculture, (iii) conflict in the use of multipurpose tree species, (iv) wildlife conservation and use, (v) tenure, and (vi) product certification. Our conclusions remain preliminary due to the relative paucity of published studies and lessons learned on what has worked and what has not in the context of integrated management for timber and NTFPs. We propose at least three ways where further research is merited. One, in improving ‘opportunistic’ situations driven by selective timber harvesting that also enhance NTFP values. Two, to explicitly enhance both timber and NTFP values through targeted management interventions. Three, to explicitly assess biophysical, social, regulatory and institutional aspects so that combined benefits are maximized. Interventions for enhancing the compatibility of timber and NTFP extraction must be scaled in relation to the size of the area being managed, applied timber harvesting intensities, and the dynamics of multi-actor, forest partnerships (e.g., between the private sector and local communities). In addition, training and education issues may have to be re-crafted with multiple-use management approaches inserted into tropical forestry curricula.

Autores: Manuel R. Guariguata, Carmen García Fernández, Douglas Sheil, Robert Nasi, Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui, Peter Cronkleton y Verina Ingram

Analysing REDD+. Challenges and choices

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REDD+ is moving ahead, but at a slower pace and in a different form than we expected when it was launched at Bali in 2007. This book takes stock of REDD+ and asks a number of questions. How has REDD+ changed, and why? How is REDD+ unfolding in national policy arenas? What does REDD+ look like on the ground? What are the main challenges in designing and implementing REDD+? And, what are the  choices  that need to be made to enable REDD+ to become more effective, efficient and equitable?
Most of the analysis is based on a large comparative research project, the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ (GCS), undertaken by CIFOR and   partners.
REDD+ – as an idea – is a success story. REDD+ has been perceived as a quick and cheap option for taking early action toward limiting global warming to 2°C. It also takes a fresh approach to the forest and climate debate, with large-scale result-based funding as a key characteristic and the hope that transformational change will happen both in and beyond the forestry sector. At the same time, REDD+ has been sufficiently broad to serve as a canopy under which a wide range of actors can pursue their own ideas of what it ought to achieve.
REDD+ not only presents challenges but also choices, as is pointed out throughout the book. Uncertainty should not lead to inaction. Regardless of what happens to REDD+ as a global mechanism in the UNFCCC process, priority should be given to three sets of actions: i) building broad political support for REDD+, e.g. by coalition building and focusing on REDD+ as an objective; ii) laying the foundations for eventual REDD+ success, e.g. by investing in stronger information systems; and iii) implementing ‘no regrets’ policy reforms that can reduce deforestation and forest degradation but which are desirable regardless of climate objectives, e.g. removal of perverse and costly subsidies and strengthening tenure and governance.

 

Autores: Angelsen, Arild / Brockhaus, Maria / Sunderlin, William D. / Verchot, Louis V.

Forests and Climate Change: Information Needs of the United Nations Forum on Forests

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Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests

  • Articulation of Sustainable Forest Management
  • Forest Law Enforcement and Governance
  • International Trade in Forest Products
  • Protection of Forests
  • Science and Research
  • Public Awareness and Education
  • Private Sector and Industry
  • Indigenous and Local Communities
  • Monitoring, Assesment and Reporting

The Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests

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Forests in a changing environment

  • Forests and climate change
  • Reversing the loss of forest cover, preventing forest degradation in all types of forests and combating desertification, including in LFCCs
  • Forests and biodiversity conservation, including protected areas

The future we want Rio+20

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Final documento of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development – Ri+20

Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005

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Sinopsis:

We have high expectations of the world’s forest resources. They are to provide renewable raw materials and energy, maintain biological diversity, mitigate climate change, protect land  and  water  resources,  provide  recreation  facilities,  improve  air  quality  and  help alleviate poverty. At the same time, forests are affected by fire, air pollution, pests and invasive species, and are the primary targets in many countries for agricultural and urban expansion.  Competing  interests  in  the  benefits  of  forest  resources  and  forest  land  are omnipresent, and the need for a sound basis for analysis and conflict resolution has never been greater.
The process of global forest resources assessment (FRA) has responded to this challenge. By  adopting  the  concept  of  sustainable  forest  management  as  a  reporting  framework, FRA is now well placed to provide a holistic perspective on global forest resources, their management and uses. Beyond the conventional production and environmental dimensions of forestry, FRA now includes parameters that are important to forest dwellers and rural poor  people,  such  as  the  value  of  non-wood  forest  products  and  trends  in  fuelwood removals. By addressing the thematic elements of sustainable forest management, FRA has  evolved  into  an  instrument  that  is  indispensible  in  international  negotiations  and arrangements related to forests, and for clarifying the relationship of forestry to sustainable development.
It is through the participation of national experts from virtually all countries that the FRA process ensures that the best and most recent knowledge is applied and that a viable feedback mechanism to national policy processes is in place. The data for FRA 2005 were delivered by national correspondents – nominated by the countries – and their networks of  professionals.  FAO’s  role  has  been  to  coordinate  the  process  and  synthesize  this information.
The immediate application of report findings and the associated databases will be in international arrangements addressing biological diversity, climate change, desertification, criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management, environmental outlook studies and the Millennium Development Goals, among others. I trust that these processes will not only make good use of this new knowledge, but will also generate feedback so that FRA can evolve, responding to new information requirements and continually improving global knowledge of forest resources.
Finally,  the  question  that  has  frequently  been  asked:  are  we  progressing  towards sustainable  forest  management?  This  is  the  question  that  constituted  the  base  of  FRA 2005.  Surprisingly,  the  answer  cannot  be  a  definitive  one:  there  are  many  good  signs and positive trends, but many negative trends remain. While intensive forest plantation and  conservation  efforts  are  on  the  rise,  primary  forests  continue  to  become  degraded or converted to agriculture at alarming rates in some regions. As the report also shows, there is a worrying correlation between negative forest resource trends and the size of rural poor populations, which calls for an intensified effort to understand and address the interrelationships  of  agriculture,  forestry  and  poverty  –  which  could  be  the  overriding theme of a future FRA.

M. Hosny El-Lakany
Assistant Director-General,
Forestry Department, FAO

Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000

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Humanity stands at a crucial point in its development. Never before have the Earth’s ecosystems been so greatly affected by our presence. Large areas of the world’s forests, which have served in the subsistence and advancement of humankind, have been converted to other uses or severely degraded. While substantial areas of productive forest remain, there is now widespread recognition that the resource is not infinite, and that its wise and sustainable use is needed for our survival. Forests are also increasingly appreciated for their aesthetic, recreational and spiritual values, which frequently conflict with purely economic objectives.
From the vantage point of the new millennium, we have the opportunity to reflect on the current condition of our planet’s resources and to look carefully at the events contributing to the present situation. The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 (FRA 2000) provides such a perspective on the world’s forests through an appraisal of their state in the year 2000, and changes since the 1980s. The assessment is a key source of factual information on forests for use by national institutions and international fora such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention to Combat Desertification in seeking solutions to environmental concerns.
FRA 2000 was the most comprehensive and technologically advanced assessment in FAO’s 50-year history. It relied on the active participation of partners and member countries around the world. The thematic content is broader than ever before, covering forest area status and change, biological diversity, timber volume and forest biomass, non-wood forest products, trees outside the forest, forest fires and other topical issues. For the first time, comparable trend information on tropical deforestation from two successive assessment periods has been obtained through the use of statistical sampling and satellite remote sensing.
The assessment employed state-of-the-art information management systems, Internet technology and geographic information systems. One tangible benefit from their use has been the ability of FAO to release a large body of information to the general public as soon as it became available. In fact, more information is now available on the FAO Web site than could conceivably be published in the main report. But the assessment was not driven by technology. Instead, the technology was applied selectively as a complement to more conventional data gathering means.
FAO considers FRA 2000 a major achievement. However, its ultimate value will be determined by its ability to motivate the world community to take firm actions that result in the wise and sustainable use of our world’s forests. Criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management provide guidance to forest users and managers on what needs to be accomplished. Yet the practical implementation of these principles must be worked out by a relatively diverse group of stakeholders, with different motivations, aspirations and needs. Therefore it is essential that decision-makers be fully involved in the process and exercise leadership in seeking solutions. Their decisions in the coming years will be difficult and the consequences far-reaching.

M. Hosny El-Lakany
Assistant Director-General
Forestry Department

Forests at the heart of a sustainable future

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Key Messages From FAO’s State of the World’s Forests 2012

Rio+20 will examine the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability. Sustainability implies a balanced cycle of consumption and production. The cycle is harmonious if key natural resources are not depleted and ecosystem functions are not impaired. Sustainability also entails balancing economic interests and social responsibilities with a sense of shared trust for the planet. It calls for a transition to a green economy approach that is low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive and that results in improved human well-being and social equity.
The tenth edition of FAO’s “State of the World’s Forests 2012 (SOFO 2012)” endeavors to reinforce a fundamental truth: forests, forestry and forest products are central to a sustainable future and they must play a critical role in our successful transition toward green economy. Forests are key to fulfilling the long-term objectives of sustainability at all levels, including through the provision of essential goods and services in a green economy. The forest sector has a rich experience in ensuring a balance between consumption and production and can provide an excellent illustration of how the growing demand for food, fibre and energy can be met while minimizing waste and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Sustainable forest management and the use of forest products also present important opportunities to address the issues of equity and justice. Equally, preservation of forest capital benefits future generations creating a constant or expanding stream of social benefits. SOFO 2012 presents insights into these themes and highlights where forests’ contribution will be most important in the future of sustainable and greener development.

Lessons Learned for REDD+ from PES and Conservation Incentive Programs

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A key challenge for PES, conservation incentives, and REDD+ is financial sustainability, that is, creation of a stable longterm funding path to achieve the desired outcomes. The financial success of these programs hinges on integration at various levels: of different sources of finance; of funding commitments of varied duration; of private sector participants; of clearly defined objectives and adaptive management approaches; and of administrative processes for fund disbursement, MRV, and registration.
While more experimentation in funding mechanisms is necessary, experiences in Mexico, Costa Rica, and Ecuador highlight the potential of environmental endowment funds to increase financial sustainability of PES and REDD+ national programs. These entities can incorporate short- and long-term payment solutions, targeted to priority areas/activities, with funds from combined sources. Advocates of national REDD+ approaches see advantages of funding mechanisms that can leverage national, public, donor and market revenues to help address funding gaps in the early stages of program and project development. Integrating private sector participation will be critical to success of public REDD+ programs. Lessons from PES indicate that co-finance mechanisms must make direct links between users and providers of ecosystem services, and must be complemented by continued outreach to build the case for ecosystem services as an investment opportunity.
Improving targeting in public PES or REDD+ programs is one way to decrease perceived investor risks. Experiences in PES and conservation incentive programs from Mexico, Costa Rica, and Ecuador show the importance of clearly defined, measurable objectives to evaluating and rewarding performance in a national REDD+ strategy. Targeting can be improved by integrating: parameters/qualifica-tions for entry, education and outreach to key participants, eligible areas under high threat of deforestation, and incentives differentiated by land type. For future national REDD+ strategies, incorporating frequent adaptive management will be important to maintaining a cost-effective program.
Effective environmental targeting is costly in terms of MRV and other transaction costs. Controlling administrative costs will be a big challenge for national REDD+, particularly as social safeguards and stakeholder participation become basic prerequisites for international donors and investors. The country experiences in Mexico, Costa Rica, and Ecuador indicate that the costs can be limited by com -bining local technical expertise with international technology, aggregating small -holders, and integrating administrative processes with already existing programs. Designing PES and REDD+ programs with a focus on integration will facilitate enrollment, maximize co-investment, and amortize transaction and administration costs across programs.

The New General Law on Climate Change in Mexico

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Mexico passed the General Law on Climate Change on April 19, 2012, establishing a new leading global legal best practice to address climate change. Mexico has become the second country, after the United Kingdom, to set out a regulatory framework that comprehensively addresses climate change through a committed multi – sectoral and multi- stakeholder approach. Importantly, this Law removes the challenge of addressing climate change from the whims of  political parties and electoral cycles, and declares it to be a long – term priority of the Mexican State with innovative new legal tools and institu tions created to meet this challenge.
The  provisions of the General Law in corporate recommendations of the two national studies completed by IDLO in 2011, the world’s first Legal Preparedness for Climate Change Assessment Report and a Country  Study on Legal Preparedness for REDD+ in Mexico.

 

Autores: de Mauleón Medina, Claudia Cecile / Saito, Yolanda

Report On Messaging, Training, And Media Efforts For RRI And Community Forest Management At COP16

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RRI y sus entidades asociadas llamó la atención sobre la importancia del manejo comunitario de los bosques frente al cambio climático y frenar la destrucción de los bosques en México y en todo el mundo en desarrollo. Por la liberación de su informe antes de la COP16 en Cancún y el interés de los medios de comunicación alentadores en las excursiones a las comunidades locales y entrevistas con los líderes locales. RRI y sus aliados fueron capaces de informar a los periodistas y a través de ellos los encargados a formular políticas que asistirían a la conferencia.
El CCMSS, investigadores y defensores se unieron a RRI en las reuniones con los corresponsales extranjeros en la Ciudad de México, el CCMSS organizo y dirigio las excursiones con periodistas que representan a importantes medios de comunicación. Los investigadores, activistas y líderes de la comunidad fueron capaces de comunicarse con los periodistas, no sólo sus propias historias, sino también los de la comunidad forestal mundial.
El siguiente informe resume las actividades y los resultados de la elaboración de mensajes RRI, la formación y los esfuerzos de los medios de comunicación, lo que finalmente dio lugar a varios artículos de los medios internacionales sobre la importancia de incluir a las comunidades en los acuerdos de REDD, además de destacar el éxito de México del manejo forestal comunitario.

RRI and its partners successfully drew attention to the importance of community forest management in addressing climate change and slowing the destruction of forests in Mexico and throughout the developing world. By releasing their report in advance of COP16 in Cancún and encouraging media interest in field trips to local communities and interviews with local leaders, RRI and its partners were able to inform reporters and through them the policy makers who would attend the conference. The outcome was the result of a six-month process that helped prepare Mexican partners for the global stage.
CCMSS advocates and researchers joined RRI staff in meetings with foreign correspondents in Mexico City, and CCMSS staff organized and led field trips with a number of reporters representing major media outlets in important and influential markets. Researchers, advocates, and community leaders were able to communicate with reporters, not only their own stories and messages, but also those of the global forestry community.
The following report summarizes the activities and outcomes of RRI’s message development, training, and media efforts over the past six months, which ultimately resulted in several international media articles on the importance of including communities in the REDD agreements, while highlighting the success of Mexico’s community forest management.

FOREST PEOPLES: Numbers across the world

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Very few comprehensive studies on forest peoples numbers have been carried out to date. A report on forest dependent people by the Statistical Services Centre (SSC) of the University of  Reading,  funded by DfID’s Forestry Research Programme in 2000 found that most statistics available on forest people numbers were more or less educated “guesstimates”. The SSC study concluded that there are “no  reliable regional or international sources of data on forest dependent people”.
Global estimates of forest peoples range from 1 million to 250 million, to 500 million, to over 1 billion The World Bank estimates that about 240 million people live in predominantly forested ecosystems and that roughly a quarter of the world’s poor and 90% of the poorest depend substantially on forests for their livelihoods.  Many of the “very  poor” are found among  indigenous hunter-gatherer  peoples,  landless communities  living in or adjacent to forests, and landless forest workers.
According to the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development, 350 million of the world’s poorest people depend almost entirely for their subsistence and survival on forests. A further 1 billion poor people – about 20% of the world’s population – depend on remnant woodlands, on homestead tree gardens, and on agro-forestry systems for their essential fuel wood, food and fodder needs. […] Indigenous peoples and other communities living in forests and depending on them for subsistence number some 60 million people worldwide.

 

Autores: Chao, Sophie

Justice for forests: Improving Criminal Justice Efforts to Combat Illegal Logging

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Sinopsis:

This World Bank study is the result of special collaborative efforts from a team from the Financial Market Integrity Unit, Financial and Private Sector Development (FFSFI) and the Sustainable Development Department, East Asia and Pacific Region (EASSD), and resulted in part from financial support by the Australian Agency for International Development on linkages between forestry and corruption in Asia and the
Pacific.
This publication was written by Marilyne Pereira Goncalves (Financial Sector Spe-cialist and Team Leader, World Bank), Melissa Panjer (World Bank), Theodore S. Green-berg (Senior Financial Sector Specialist, World Bank), and William B. Magrath (Lead Natural Resource Economist, World Bank) under the general guidance of Jean Pesme (Manager, World Bank) and Magda Lovei (Sector Manager, World Bank). The team is grateful for the help and guidance provided by Yves Aeshlimann (Senior Financial Sec-tor Specialist, World Bank), Jean Pierre Brun (Senior Financial Sector Specialist, World Bank), and Allison Campbell (World Bank).
The team benefitted from insightful comments and discussion that helped shape the paper during the peer review process. The peer reviewers were John M. Sellar (Chief, Enforcement Support, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES Secretariat), David Higgins (Manager, Environmental Crime Programme, INTERPOL), Christina Biebesheimer (Chief Counsel, World Bank), Charles E. Di Leva (Chief Counsel, World Bank), Thomas Columkill Garrity (Public Sec-tor Specialist, World Bank), and Emile van der Does de Willebois (Senior Financial Sec-tor Specialist, World Bank).

 

Autores: Pereira Goncalves, Marilyne /  Panjer, Melissa / Greenberg, Theodore S.  / Magrath, William B.

Rights to forests and carbon under REDD+ initiatives in Latin America

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Sinopsis:

Tenure rights over land, forest and carbon are of central concern to REDD+ strategies. Tenure rights shape access and decision making with regard to land and forest resources. Tropical forests, however, are often sites of conflict and competing claims to land and trees, and insecure forest tenure rights are associated with deforestation and degradation. Lowering carbon emissions and compensating those responsible under REDD+ initiatives will require clear and secure rights. This raises concerns for communities and indigenous peoples living in forests, who fear that REDD+ may lead to the usurpation of their rights by outsiders or to increased hardship due to new limitations on forest use.
Although the importance of these tenure issues is widely recognised, important gaps remain in the relevant literature and in country Readiness Preparation Proposals (R-PPs), particularly regarding the allocation of carbon rights and liabilities.
This brief is organised as follows. The first 2 sections discuss concepts of tenure and highlight progress and problems in the recognition or clarification of forest tenure in the Latin America region. The next section discusses community forestry management (CFM) as a potential REDD+ strategy. Following this is a discussion of indigenous territories specifically. The subsequent section presents the current status of country initiatives regarding rights, liabilities and benefit distribution. This is followed by a summary of the key lessons learnt and the conclusions.

 

Autores: Larson, Anne M. / Corbera, Esteve / Cronkleton, Peter / van Dam, Chris / Bray, David / Estrada, Manuel / May, Peter / Medina, Gabriel / Navarro, Guillermo / Pacheco, Pablo

Busting the Forest Myths: People as Part of the Solution

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Sinopsis:

The long-held contention that rural forest communities are the prime culprits in tropical forest destruction is increasingly being discredited, as evidence mounts that the best way to protect rainforests is to involve local residents is sustainanle management.

 

Autores: Pearce, Fred

FSC de WWF

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All the timber and wood products we buy — from furniture to flooring to paper — started life in a forest somewhere.

Local Governance, Anti-Corruption and REDD+ in Latin America and the Caribbean: Exploring Synergies to Strengthen Transparency and Accountability

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The Transparency and Accountability in Local Governments (TRAALOG) regional initiative started in April 2010. The TRAALOG has been supported by the Democratic Governance Thematic Trust Fund (DGTTF), the Global Thematic Programme on Anti-Corruption for Development Effectiveness (PACDE), and the United Nations Development Progamme (UNDP) Spanish Trust Fund. The TRAALOG is an initiative of the UNDP Democratic Governance Practice Area of the Regional Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean (RBLAC), and is implemented from the UNDP Regional Centre for Latin America and the Caribbean in Panama.
The TRAALOG targets small initiatives at the local level that can be scaled up through policy support and capacity development and partnerships. One of the key activities of TRAALOG is to promote the development and systematization of knowledge products and tools, focusing on specific initiatives aimed at increasing transparency and accountability, as well as to mainstream anti-corruption issues into other areas, such as access to information, ethics, climate change, health, Millennium Development Objectives and social audit. The idea is for these knowledge products to serve as means and to generate interest and discussion among UNDP Country Offices inside and outside the region, regional service centers and other units of UNDP and the wider United Nations System, as well as development and democratic governance practitioners.
Similarly, it is hoped that these knowledge products could serve as a reference in pursuing initiatives and in seeking opportunities for replication. These can also be used to develop and support projects and programs, as well as regional activities. These knowledge products are the result of partnerships with a number of UNDP Country Offices, donors, consultants and associate experts, academic institutions and civil society organizations. All helped to identify experiences that provide valuable practical information relative to improving democratic governance and increasing transparency and accountability.

 

Autores: García, Beatriz

Colombian community leader talks about REDD

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Sinopsis:

A pioneering project to reduce deforestation and forest degradation in a former conflict zone in Colombia was recently granted gold certification under the Climate, Community, and Biodiversity (CCB) standard. The accreditation will help local communities access carbon finance in their efforts to safeguard biologically-rich forests.

The project is located in Colombia’s Darien region, near the border with Panama. The area is part of the Chocó, the rainforest ecosystem that runs along the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador but has been heavily impacted in places by logging, mining, and clearing for agriculture and cattle ranching. The Chocó ranks as one of the most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth.

 

Autores: Butler, Rett A.

REDD in Colombia: using forests to finance conservation and communities in Colombia´s Choco, a former war zone

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Sinopsis:

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD), a climate change mechanism proposed by the U.N., has been widely lauded for its potential to simultaneously deliver a variety of benefits at multiple scales. But serious questions remain, especially in regard to local communities. Will they benefit from REDD?

While much lip-service is paid to community involvement in REDD projects, many developers approach local communities as an afterthought. Priorities lie in measuring the carbon sequestered in a forest area, lining up financing, and making marketing arrangements, rather than working out what local people — the ones who are often cutting down trees — actually need in order to keep forests standing. This sets the stage for conflict, which reduces the likelihood that a project will successfully reduce deforestation for the 15-30 year life of a forest carbon project.
Brodie Ferguson, a Stanford University- trained anthropologist whose work has focused on forced displacement of rural communities in conflict regions in Colombia, understands this well. Ferguson is working to establish a REDD project in an unlikely place: Colombia’s Chocó, a region of diverse coastal ecosystems with some of the highest levels of endemism in the world that until just a few years ago was the domain of anti-government guerrillas and right-wing death squads.
Ironically, violence in the Chocó is one reason why the region’s ecosystems are in relatively good shape — armed conflict discouraged investment in the area. But waning guerrilla activity has ushered in commercial interest in the region leading to new conflicts between the traditional owners of land — indigenous and Afro-Colombian communities — and developers, notably ranchers and agribusiness. But thanks to Colombia’s 1991 constitution, which established a collective titling system for traditional land users, indigenous and Afro-Colombian communities have the upper hand, at least from a legal standpoint. Still, these communities are poor, marginalized, and subject to manipulation and intimidation by developers. Some groups have signed deals that have provided them with a small amount of money upfront at the expense of the ecosystems on which their livelihoods depend.
The emergence of payments for ecosystem services mechanisms like REDD now offers communities in the Chocóan alternative development model that could allow them to continue using their lands for traditional activities while gaining access to improved health and education, microfinance, and sustainable business opportunities. Ferguson says while NGOs have been working for decades in the Chocó to foster sustainable livelihoods, REDD could finally be the mechanism that generates sufficient funding to get projects off the ground.

In a November 2009 interview with mongabay.com, Ferguson discussed his work with communities the Chocó and the challenges of organizing a REDD project in a remote region.
AN INTERVIEW WITH BRODIE DAVID FERGUSON

 

Autores: Butler, Rhett A.

North American Environmental Outlook to 2030

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Sinopsis:

This report summarizes recent research concerning the major forces and underlying trends that are likely to shape the environment of North America in 2030. The intention of this report is not to present a prediction of the future. Rather, it is to consider the possibilities that the future might hold in light of the environmental and social stresses facing North America and the world at this time.
The report has been produced in response to a request by the Council of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). It complements the CEC’s 2008 report, The North American Mosaic (CEC 2008), which focused on recent environmental trends and divided issues by subject or medium—air and atmosphere, biodiversity and ecosystems, pollutants, and water. This allows for the telling of a coherent story for each issue, but can hide the interconnections among issues. This report takes a more systems approach, following a Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response model. Thus, it follows more directly from the discussion paper prepared for the June 2008 conference, North America 2030: An Environmental Outlook, hosted by the CEC’s Joint Public Advisory Committee (Stratos Inc. and IISD 2008), upon which it expands. Together, these and other initiatives are intended to assist the CEC in the consideration and development of its work program by highlighting possible areas for cooperative action to support environmental mitigation, adaptation and innovation strategies across all three countries.
Several factors restrict the scope of this report. First, as a review, it is necessarily limited to available work to-date. Second, because it takes a North American perspective, the choice was to focus primarily, although not exclusively, on cases where consistent and comparable information is available for Canada, Mexico, and the United States. This precluded using some country-specific data,
which provide greater within-country detail and may differ from similar data presented in international data sets. Third, there are numerous aspects of the environment for which historic data are available, but for which there has been no effort to make forwardlooking projections. Fourth, each of these restrictions is exacerbated by the desire to include quantitative information as much as
possible. Finally, most studies, including those explored here, have tended not to consider in detail the possibility of dramatic, albeit imaginable, surprises that would alter their projections significantly.
The review draws heavily on two recent global studies—the United Nations Environment Programme’s Global Environmental Outlook 4 and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030, which provide projections for a range of environmental issues. These are complemented by more issue-specific studies at the global level—e.g., the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the United Nations Population Division’s World Population Prospects and the International Energy Agency’s World Energy Outlook 2008—as well as select national studies and other available literature. The key messages that come out of the review can be grouped into three categories:

1.- There is a range of variation in the projections for many environmental issues and their drivers.
2.- Significant changes, stemming from major challenges, can be expected in a number of environmental issues and their drivers.
3.- There exist important gaps in the current knowledge base concerning environmental futures.

Adaptation Finance How to Get Out From Between a Rock and a Hard Place

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Sinopsis:

Adaptation to climate change in developing countries is to a large extent about building resilience, including social and institutional responsiveness to change. In that sense it is about “development.” However, adaptation finance is not development assistance. It is better thought of as a financial transfer based on the “causal responsibility” for the disproportionate costs to the poor of climate change associated with carbon emissions of the rich. Our proposals start from the premise that if adaptation transfers are to be effective and sustained, the habits, culture, and practices of traditional aid programs need to be set aside. The climate community can set the groundwork for an overall approach to adaptation transfers that benefits from hard lessons learned over several decades about what makes traditional aid more effective: channeling aid through recipient countries’ own budgets and systems; making recipient governments primarily accountable to their own citizens for measured results (and not just to donors for tracking money); full transparency to both taxpayers in donor countries and citizens in recipient countries including timely publication of disbursements and systematic reporting of results; and multilateral funding whenever possible to reduce the high transactions costs and the lack of predictability associated with more politically driven bilateral programs.

 

Autores: Birdsall, Nancy / de Nevers, Michele

Major Groups-led Initiative in Support of UNFF

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Sinopsis:

As part of their efforts to contribute to sustainable forest management discussions under the auspices of United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), Major Groups participating in the UNFF process are organizing an international workshop in support of UNFF on the theme: Forests and Economic Development: Positioning Forests to Contribute to Green Economy.

Call for expression of interest presentation of succesful projects related to forests and economic development

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Sinopsis:

Major Groups Representatives engaged in the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) process are calling for expressions of interest from organizations who have implemented projects that have successfully addressed various dynamics associated with forests and economic development for presentation in an international workshop. These projects are sought as case study for knowledge sharing during a Major Groups workshop to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 13-17 June 2012 on the Theme Forest and Economic Development: Positioning Forests to contribute to Green Economy.
The global workshop is a Major Groups-led Initiative (MGI) in support of UNFF to develop policy recommendations for United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) 10 scheduled to take place in Istanbul, Turkey in 2013 hosted by the government of Brazil and funded by the German Ministry of Agriculture (BMELV).
In keeping with the theme of UNFF10, selected projects will be those that explicitly address successful projects that exemplify the relationships between forests and economic development.
The projects being proposed should address the following broad theme of UNFF10: Forests and economic development or any of the sub-themes below a. Forest Products and Services;
b. National Forest Programmes and other Sectoral Policies and Strategies;
c. Reducing Risks and Impacts of Disasters;
d. Benefits of Forests and Trees to Urban Communities.

What is Community Forestry?

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Sinopsis:

Community forestry is a broad term used to describe models of forest management that give local people the majority say in making decisions. Similar terms include participatory forest management, collaborative forest management, social forestry, and community-based forest management. With an aim to reduce poverty, community forestry is participatory and should serve all community members equitably.

Understanding community-based REDD+ a manual for indigenous community trainers

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Sinopsis:

In December 2010, after years of negotiations, an agreement on REDD was finally reached at the 16th Conference of Parties (COP 16) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Cancun, Mexico. Indigenous representatives worked hard to get the rights and concerns of indigenous peoples included in the agreement and they were successful. The references to indigenous peoples and their rights in this agreement are not as strong as they would have liked them to be, but at least they were included. And the agreement also refers of the UNDRIP, even though only in the Annex.

 

Autores: Erni, Christian

¿What is REDD+?

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Sinopsis:

REDD+ stands for countries’ efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, and foster conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.

Community Forest Management and the Emergence of Multi-Scale Governance Institutions: Lessons for REDD+ Develompent from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia

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Sinopsis:

One of the greatest challenges in designing REDD+ mechanisms will be determining what institutional design elements and implementation strategies will work best. In addition to current attention to international and national REDD architecture, there is a pressing need to focus on regional and local architecture, and to understand existing forest management strategies effective in stopping deforestation. Community forest management (CFM) is one proven strategy where collective action by local people can move beyond deforestation or degradation and achieve sustainable management, under certain conditions. Where successful, CFM is often associated with both secure rights to forest resources and the development of multi-scaled governance institutions. Such institutions provide the legal frameworks that allow local people to establish control over forest resources and develop local-level governance structures adequate for new management demands. These local governance institutions can develop when supported to do so in alliances with networks of national and international government and civil society organizations. By comparing cases where successful CFM has emerged it will be possible to illustrate some of the local, national, and international institutional characteristics necessary for the development of governance institutions capable of maintaining forests, resisting deforestation and degradation and generating additional benefits. Examining the conditions that have enabled CFM development could provide useful lessons for REDD+ implementation.
There is growing evidence that varying forms of CFM have reduced, or stopped, deforestation and even enhanced carbon stocks under specific circumstances, and has done so while achieving more equitable outcomes in the distribution of forest incomes and at a relatively low cost. The equitability and cost characteristics (and potential for joining development and conservation) makes CFM one REDD mechanism with great potential for adoption at the local level. A recent study found that the percentage of the global forest estate designated for use or owned by local communities and indigenous peoples went from 9.2% to 11.4% between 2002 and 2008 and an earlier study found that 22% of developing country forests are in this category. These numbers suggest a growing need to identify and maintain institutional frameworks to promote CFM. We argue that the global transition to CFM is central to achieving equity and the democratization of natural assets while avoiding deforestation and degradation.
CFM in its various forms is particularly advanced in Latin America, likely associated with the relative degree of democracy in the region, which provides a context in which local governance institutions emerge and build multi-level linkages and alliances with other actors and organizations. As we will describe, some forests managed by communities, for the commercial production of timber, and occasionally non-timber forest products (NTFPs), have achieved what could be called a post-REDD landscape, i.e., where local-level decision makers over forests benefit by maintaining them, producing well conserved forest landscapes. Latin American experiences with CFM illustrate the importance of providing secure rights over forest property to community level actors and establishing conditions conducive to the formation of multi-scale governance institutions capable of maintaining and adapting forest management systems. Governance has been defined as ?the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised? which suggests a focus on government and the relation between a government and its citizens. However, scholars of forest governance have focused on the role of community-level institutions, which may or may not be part of recognized political authority in a country, and/or a broader set of relations between community institutions and government and NGO actors. The concept of ?multi-scale governance? is used here to include all levels and geographic scales of national and international government authority, local community governance regimes, and civil society institutional partnerships or networks which have decision making power or influence over forest management. REDD+ faces a number of governance challenges. These include vertical and horizontal linkages between and among local communities, all levels of government, and civil society actors. There will be notable power asymmetries between many of these actors, and the processes will necessarily be turbulent, but government policy and international institutions can help strengthen the capacity of local communities to interact with other levels and develop multi-level collective action.
This paper analyses factors leading to the emergence of multi-scale governance institutions in CFM systems that successfully maintain forest landscapes drawing on cases from three Latin American countries: Mexico, which has a lengthy history of community management of forests and Brazil and Bolivia, two countries where innovative reforms have created conditions for nascent examples of CFM. A fourth relevant case, Guatemala, is not included for reasons of space. The further challenge for these experiences will be how to extend the model into areas of currently threatened forests.

 

Autores: Cronkleton, Peter / Barton Bray, David / Medina, Gabriel

Pro-poor Benefit Distribution In REDD+ Who Gets What And Why Does It Matter?

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Sinopsis:

Emissions from deforestation are estimated to contribute up to 17 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions (IPCC, 2007) – the third-largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions after energy supply and industrial activity (Karousakis, 2009). It was only at the 11th Conference of the Parties (COP11) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Montreal in 2005 that integrating the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries into the post-Kyoto climate change regime was proposed by the government of Papua New Guinea on behalf of the Coalition for Rainforest Nations. REDD was recognized and later incorporated into the Bali Action Roadmap (Carpenter, 2008), which further included the role of conservation, sustainable forest management and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks, which is commonly known as REDD+. Few issues have dominated the recent environmental debate as much as the proposal of including REDD in a post-2012 international climate policy agreement (Börner et al., 2010). The basic idea behind REDD is simple: countries that are willing and able to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation should be compensated for doing so (Scholz and Schmidt, 2008). It is predicted that financial flows for greenhouse gas emission reductions from REDD+ could reach up to US$30 billion a year (UN-REDD, n.d.).
The issue of distribution remains key to ensuring that the poor or the most vulnerable sections of society benefit from REDD+. According to Peskett et al. (2008), one of the main reasons equitable or fairer benefit-sharing is important is in order to build wider national (and international) legitimacy and support behind the REDD+ mechanism. If a REDD+ intervention is perceived as illegitimate, this may lead to conflict and jeopardize environmental conservation efforts as well as the effectiveness of the scheme. Lindhjem et al. (2009) state that careful balancing between effective incentives and legitimacy is needed. Gaining the support of local, resource-dependent people through improvements to their livelihoods and poverty alleviation may in turn assist in the achievement of conservation objectives (Groom and Palmer, 2008). Lindhjem et al. (2009) argue that, to foster legitimacy for REDD+, enough people must benefit but, if too many people benefit from something they did not contribute to, this will dilute incentives, which may result in lower emission reductions and in lower overall benefits to share. On the other hand, if rewards are given only to certain groups, actions or geographical areas, people may feel unfairly treated and turn against the whole mechanism as illegitimate. Thus, a clearer understanding of distributional issues is becoming increasingly important for the design of REDD+ (Porras, 2010).
Benefits distribution issues are important at the international level – where financial rewards are transferred to recipient countries – and at national and sub-national levels – where benefits from REDD+ are disbursed from national governments to local governments and other entities such as nongovernmental organizations and community organizations (see Figure 1). More importantly, equitable benefit-sharing is imperative at the level of communities and households, which are the final recipients of the payment. Although there has been an emphasis on addressing the issues of REDD+-related benefit distribution at the international level and to some degree at national (or central  government) level, there has been very limited analysis (if any) at the lowest tier of administrative hierarchy, which is usually a village, and how this may affect benefit-sharing within and among households.

 

Autores: Yassin Mohamed, Essam

Back to the forest; Exploring forest transitions in Candelaria Loxicha, Mexico

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Sinopsis:

The forest transition theory, originally developed from a pattern observed in industrial countries in Europe and North America (Perz 2007), suggests that the area covered with forests changes in predictable ways as societies experience economic development, industrialization, and urbanization. Initially, a large decline in forest cover occurs, but at some point, the trend reverses and a slow increase in forest cover takes place (Rudel, Coomes et al. 2005).
According to forest transition theory, two major forces can explain reforestation. One is associated with the decline in agricultural rent, typically due to better nonfarm employment opportunities. Marginal lands are abandoned and reforestation takes place; this is referred to as the economic development path. The second is associated with an increase in the price of forest products, for example, as a result of the scarcity of such products from deforestation. This offers incentives for farmers to plant trees instead of crops on their lands and has been called the forest scarcity path (Mather 1992; Mather and Needle 1998; Rudel 1998; Rudel, Coomes et al. 2005; Angelsen 2007).
Contrary to what has been observed in Europe and North America, in Latin America, forest transitions tend to vary with the increased diversifi cation of rural livelihoods (Rigg 2006). Neoliberal globalization has produced a series of changes in rural Latin American livelihoods that affect forest transition trajectories in the region. In contemporary Latin America, the economic development path and the forest scarcity path might coexist, as smallholders pursue a diversifi ed livelihood strategy, or the “road of many returns” (Rudel, Bates, and Machinguiashi 2002, 89).1 Smallholders might try to combine economic activities in both urban and rural settings, both in their own country and abroad. These livelihood strategies would allow for the recovery of some forest, because smallholders reduce their pressure on the land when they begin to earn signifi cant amounts of nonfarm income. Although some land is left to reforest, production may intensify on other sites as new opportunities arise (Bebbington 1997), but also some plots might be enriched with productive trees (Rudel, Bates et al. 2002). Evidence of these strategies has been observed in Java (Indonesia), Bolivia, and Mexico (Preston 1989; Preston 1998; Klooster 2003).
Understanding modern (tropical) forest transitions requires taking into account local contexts, as particular factors (e.g., history, environment, institutions) might lead to different outcomes. Also, the interconnectedness of the world, in terms of mobility of people, capital, goods, and ideas, is quantitatively larger and qualitatively different now from in the past.
This article explores the factors associated with increase in vegetation cover in a municipality in southeastern Mexico. The study focuses on a managed forest (Wiersum 1997). In many forest transition studies, the definition of forest excludes trees in agricultural production systems.2 We fi nd this problematic, as agroforestry systems and managed forests in tropical landscapes cannot be ignored: they sustain the lives of millions of people (Clay 2004) and contribute to the conservation of biological diversity (Perfecto and Vandermeer 2008). Managed forest and agro-forests might be among the few remaining areas with signifi cant tree canopy cover in some areas of northern Latin America (Perfecto, Rice et al., 1996; Perfecto, Vandermeer et al. 2005; see also Hecht et al. 2006). It is important to understand the mechanisms that have caused vegetation cover increases in these landscapes so as to better target policy interventions.

 

Autores: Aguilar Støen, Mariel / Angelsen, Arild / Moe, Stein R.

World Bank: More donors supporting REDD+

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Sinopsis:

Financial support for REDD+ projects to safeguard forests in developing countries is increasing with new countries pledging to get involved and existing donors stepping up their commitments, a World Bank official said.

“The past two years have seen considerable donor contributions to multilateral REDD+ initiatives,” said Kenneth Andrasko of the Bank´s Carbon Finance Unit. There has been continued progress, albeit slow, towards a system for performance-based system for forest carbon, he said recently on the sidelines of the UN climate summit in Durban. “The concept is gaining hold more broadly.”

http://blog.cifor.org/6113/world-bank-more-donors-supporting-redd/

 

Autores: Aurora, Leony

Forests and Climate Change in Latin America: Linking Adaptation and Mitigation

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Sinopsis:

Scientists and policymakers can consider two options for addressing climate change: mitigation, which refers to reducing the sources or enhancing the sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs), and adaptation, which refers to responding to the effects of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation are two fundamentally dissimilar approaches and present well-documented differences. With both these strategies being implemented across Latin America, it is necessary to explore the relationships between them, especially potential synergies or trade-offs, and interactions with development plans and institutions in order to maximize their efficiency.
Forests play an important role in both adaptation and mitigation, as they provide local ecosystem services relevant for adaptation as well as the global ecosystem service of carbon sequestration, relevant for mitigation. Consequently, just as there are synergies and trade-offs between global and local ecosystem services, there are synergies and trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation in forestry projects: mitigation projects can facilitate or hinder local people‘s efforts to adapt to climate change, and adaptation projects can affect ecosystems and their potential to sequester carbon. In Latin America, some mitigation projects have demonstrated positive impacts on community adaptation, and some adaptation projects have resulted in an increase in carbon stocks. Nevertheless, no project has exploited these synergies fully. Furthermore, few climate change or forest policies in Latin America have addressed the linkages between adaptation and mitigation in the forestry sector.
In this paper, we examine climate change adaptation and mitigation in the context of tropical forests. We explore linkages between climate change mitigation and adaptation in ecosystems, projects and policies. Case studies from selected Latin American countries illustrate our points.

 

Autores: Locatelli, Bruno / Evans, Vanessa / Wardell, Andrew / Andrade, Angela / Vignola, Raffaele

Preventing the risk of corruption in REDD+ in Indonesia

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Sinopsis:

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is a mechanism designed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to enhance the role of forests in curbing climate change (UNFCCC 2007). The UNFCCC and its bodies have expanded the concept to include forest conservation and human activities that increase carbon stocks, or REDD+ (UNFCCC 2007, 2009). REDD+ has the potential to alter the incentives for deforestation and land use change and instead to encourage sustainable forest management.
Significant official development assistance (ODA) has already been committed to create the policy conditions for REDD+ and demonstration projects in forest-rich tropical countries, including Indonesia. The hope is that eventually ODA will be replaced by payments for reduced carbon emissions in a fully operational compliance market for forest carbon credits. In the meantime, investors are acquiring – and governments are designating – large land areas in preparation for a REDD+ regime.
Without binding international agreements under the UNFCCC in place, REDD+ is evolving as a voluntary, bilateral or multilateral mechanism. Unclear REDD+ rules, potential for significant financial gain and weak governance in many of the tropical countries involved are giving rise to suspicions that possible speculative processes, corruption and malpractices may proliferate. Such practices range from violation of forest–dependent people’s rights and livelihoods to increased deforestation and manipulation of baselines, carbon emissions reports and accounts. Even though Indonesia has demonstrated its commitment to improving governance and reducing corruption, concerns remain that old patterns and governance failures will be repeated in this new REDD+ context.
This paper aims to provide an analysis of the risk of corruption in REDD+ readiness activities, and the conditions that may influence potential outcomes in Indonesia. The intention is to inform, first and foremost, the government of Indonesia (GoI) and its efforts in building the policies and institutions for REDD+, so that adequate steps can be taken to remove barriers and reduce risks. As Indonesia is at the forefront in REDD+ policy reform and institutional design, it is hoped the analysis will also inform other forest-rich tropical countries and the donor community.
Given its purpose and scope, this paper pays significantly more attention to weaknesses that can affect REDD+ than to Indonesia’s progress in curbing corruption and other associated crimes in the forestry sector. It focuses on the readiness phase – when tropical countries are preparing for REDD+ implementation – because this is the period during which policies, institutions, systems and processes are designed. These will influence the presence or absence of risks and conditions for corruption in subsequent phases.
The paper is structured as follows. Section 2 summarises the GoI’s main undertakings in preparing the country for REDD+. Section 3 offers background information about Indonesia’s forests and governance, reviews the general risks of corruption in REDD+ and highlights efforts to curb corruption, including the involvement of banks in preventing money laundering. Section 4 identifies the risks of corruption in the REDD+ policymaking process, paying special attention to the planned moratorium aimed at reducing forest conversion and the efforts to close regulatory loopholes and data gaps. It discusses how these efforts will support forest land use policies and clarification of jurisdictions and rights over forests. Section 5 looks at progress and gaps in cross-agency coordination. Section 6 discusses experience in climate financing in Indonesia, experience in the management and distribution of funds, and the role of banks. Section 7 reviews REDD+ benefit sharing, with particular attention to the discussion on the Ministry of Forestry (MoF) regulation on revenue sharing from voluntary carbon markets and payments for environmental services. Section 8 discusses the REDD+ project implementation framework, focusing on experiences with licensing processes for forest concessions and permits, the types of concessions for forest use and REDD+ and the opportunities for corruption and their likely outcomes. Section 9 considers lessons from current practices in forest tax and production report reconciliation, the involvement of multiple agencies at various scales and the risks of corruption in REDD+. Section 10 summarises the main conclusions and provides some recommendations for priorities in addressing current weaknesses.
The paper is based on an analysis of relevant legislation, interviews with agency officials, literature reviews and media reports. Given the sensitivity of the topic, interviewees are not named. Their agency affiliation and the time of the interview are given instead. Research for this working paper drew extensively from print media, primarily in Indonesia but also globally, because REDD+ events are very recent and not all official documents are available. Many of the decisions and the processes discussed here are highly dynamic; by the time this paper is published, circumstances are likely to have changed.

 

Autores: Dermawan, Ahmad / Petkova, Elena / Sinaga, Anna / Muhajir, Mumu / Indriatmoko, Yayan

New timber regulation to force companies away from business-as-usual practices

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Sinopsis:

New regulations banning sale of illegal timber in consumer countries will force companies to move away from business-as-usual practices, part of a two-pronged approach to ensure the sustainability of supply for wood products.

Under a regulation that will come into effect in the European Union next year, companies will have to verify the legality of timber from the harvest country onwards, said Chen Hin Keong, Global Forest Trade Programme Leader at TRAFFIC. While the impact of this rule on illegal logging is unclear, there are already “certain developments you can see in the global markets: industries want to learn about the regulations,” said Chen.

 

Autores: Aurora, Leony

Indigenous communities make a list of “do’s and don’ts” for forest conservation schemes

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Sinopsis:

Inndigenous and community groups have made a wish-list detalling how schemes that aim to reduce deforestation and forest degradation should work for those living in and amongst the forest.

The recommendations, formulated at a meeting on the sidelines of recent the UN climate talks in Durban are timely in the light of the watering down social safeguards in the REDD+ text decided upon at the summit.

 

Autores: Kovacevic, Michelle

REDD+ and a Green Economy: Opportunities for a mutually supportive relationship

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Sinopsis:

Deforestation and forest degradation contribute approximately 15-17 per cent of all greenhouse gases. There can be no cost-efficient solution to climate change that does not include mitigation of these emissions. At its 16th meeting, in Cancun, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted REDD+ as a means to reduce such emissions. REDD+ stands for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation; the ‘plus’ denotes the conservation of forests, enhancement of forest carbon stocks and sustainable management of forests.

 

Autores: Suhkdev, Pavan / Prabhu, Ravi / Kumar, Pushpam / Bassi, Andrea / Patwa Shah, Wahida / Enters, Thomas / Labbate, Gabriel / Greenwal, Julie

Who lives where?

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In the rainforest, you can watch some of the most colorful, interesting, and unusual animals on the planet. From little insects to large mammals, all types of animals live in the rainforest. In facts, more than half of all the animals and bugs in the world are in the rainforests.

 

Autores: Hutter, Carollyne

Rainforests

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You are standing under a canopu of huge trees. Everywhere You look, things are growing (plants) and moving (animals). lt\\\\’s hot and it\\\\’s raining, but You don\\\\’t care, for this is a totally fascinating place. Where are You? ln a rainforest!

 

Autores: Hutter, Carollyne

Two decades of community forestry in Nepal: What have we learned?

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Sinopsis:

Over 20 years ago, the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) made a commitment to provide long term support to implement the Master Plan for the Forestry Sector in Nepal. This commitment is fulfi lled through Nepal Swiss Community Forestry Project (NSCFP). Despite many issues, we are so privileged to have directly contributed to the visible impacts of community forestry as indicated in this publication. The project has been a trend-setter in community forestry in addressing the structural issues of resource governance, poverty, gender inequality, social discrimination and inequity. The advancement of community forestry through better forest governance, a multi-partnership approach, targeting the poor and discriminated at the household level, the implementation of a partnership model for the promotion of forest based enterprises, and the strengthening of bottom-up planning and feedback systems from the grass roots to the national level are some of the key contributions that the project has made. The ecological, social and economic outcomes thus achieved have clearly improved the livelihoods of poor and discriminated women and men.
I am glad to share that SDC has decided to extend its support for such activities through a new Multi-Stakeholder Forestry Programme (MSFP) which builds on the learning of NSCFP, the DFID-funded LFP and other programmes. I believe that in many respects it sets the baseline for the new forestry programme.

Elisabeth Von Capeller
Head of Cooperation
Counsellor (Development)
Swiss Agency for Development and
Cooperation SDC
Embassy of Switzerland in Nepal
Ekantakuna, Jawalakhel

 

Autores: Carter, Jane / Pokharel, Bharat / Rai Parajuli, Rudriksha

Managing Forest Resources for Sustainable Development An Evaluation of the World Bank Group´s Experience Approach Paper

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Sinopsis:

This paper sets out the proposed approach to evaluating the Workd Bank’s activities in promoting the management of forest resources for sustainable development. The proposed evaluation will be
guided by the following overarching questions:

1. In what manner and how effectively has the World Bank Group supportedmember countries and the private sector in balancing competing demands on their forest resources and managing them for sustainable development?

2. What can we learn from these past experiences to help guide forest related interventions in the future?

In line with the above, based on past experience and considering the World Bank’s 2002 Forest Strategy’s objectives for the sector, this study will focus on the following evaluative questions:

a) How relevant, effective and sustainable have the WBG’s interventions been in reducing poverty in forest areas?

b) How relevant, effective and sustainable have the WBG’s interventions been in enhancing the forest sector’s contribution to economic growth?

c) How relevant, effective and sustainable have the WBG’s interventions been in protecting the forests’ local and global environmental services?

In answering these questions the evaluation will carefully consider possible trade-offs and synergies between the three objectives of poverty reduction, contribution to economic growth and protecting the forests’ local and global environmental services. The evaluative questions reflect the focus of the 2002 forest strategy and during the inquiry, the evaluation will take into account the impact of the 2002 forest strategy and other internal factors on the extent, nature and effectiveness of the WBG’s forest activities.

Voices of the Forest: A Shifting Approach to Community Forestry

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Sinopsis:

Local people hold the key to healthy forests in the Asia Pacific region. They have the closest direct stake in forest resources and have the power to make or break any forestry management strategy, including those aimed at climate change mitigation. Three passionate advocates outline why they believe community forestry to be so important.

Realizing Forest Rights in Vietnam: Addressing Issues in Community Forest Management

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Sinopsis:

There has been growing recognition over the last few decades that community forest management (CFM) can make significant contributions to sustainable forest management, poverty alleviation, local democracy, and the preservation of local cultures. These are key priorities for the Government of Vietnam (GoV), as indicated by the considerable budgets made available for forest conservation and poverty alleviation as well as legislative actions in support of grassroots democracy and cultural recognition.
The government has created strong foundations for the development of CFM through Forest Land Allocation (FLA). By the end of 2009, local communities held tenure rights to 26% of the total forest area in the country, either as individual households, household groups, or in village collectives. The transfer of tenure rights is a critical cornerstone in the promotion of community forest management because they are a necessary precondition for local communities to manage and benefit from forests sustainably, participate in democratic decision-making regarding forests, and develop their own customary practices of forest management.
Nonetheless, experience from Vietnam and elsewhere shows that tenure rights are not enough. The transfer of tenure leads to desirable environmental, economic, political, and cultural outcomes only if local communities can realize the rights given to them in legislation. For example, tenure transfers have little meaning if forest regulations and logging bans severely restrict the concrete rights accorded to people. Transfers also possess little value if they emphasize protection obligations over rights to forest management. In addition, legal tenure rights often do not translate into real rights on the ground if local authorities and communities do not have the capacity to implement legal stipulations. In many situations, tenure rights do not bring economic benefits to local people who lack access to markets and forest ecosystem services.

 

Autores: Sikor, Thomas / Quang Tan, Nguyen (editors)

When collective action and tenure allocations collide: Outcomes from community forests in Quintana Roo, Mexico and Peten, Guatemala

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Sinopsis:

Based on a comparative case study of four community forestry enterprises in Guatemala and Mexico, we examine the relationship between user group characteristics and state allocation of tenure bundles. Using Schlager and Ostrom’s four levels of tenure bundles and collective action theory, we illustrate how tenure bundles and collective action costs interact to either promote or create disincentives for conservation and communal economic benefits. We suggest that in communities with high costs for collective action, a tenure bundle that includes management, withdrawal and exclusion rights yet omits alienation rights may be optimal for community forestry. We also demonstrate how unclear allocation of rights can result in local interpretations of land rights that do support collective action.

 

Autores: Barsimantov, James / Racelis, Alex / Biedenweg, Kelly / Digiano, Maria

Tenure, tourism and timber in Quintana Roo, Mexico: land tenure changes in forest ejidos after agrarian reforms

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Sinopsis:

We present and apply an analytical framework for understanding land tenure change in the wake of radical land policy modifications in Mexico’s communal tenure system. We posit that the changes in land tenure vary as a result of a complex interplay of drivers external and internal to the land tenure unit. Using interview and socio-economic data, we apply this framework to six ejidos in Quintana Roo, Mexico in order to understand the extent to which these ejidos have shifted towards private individual property as promoted in the 1992 amendment of Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution. In our case study ejidos, we conclude that external factors, including community forestry, tourism, and urbanization, have synergized with factors internal to the ejido (including governance, existing resource base, ethnicity, livelihood strategies, migration, and attitudes about property), leading to different trajectories in land tenure arrangements.

 

Autores: Barsimantov, James / Racelis, Alex / Barnes, Grenville / Digiano, Maria

The Management of Small Diameter, Lesser-Known Species as Polewood in Forest Communities of Central Quintana Roo, Mexico

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Sinopsis:

Diversification in resource management can serve as a strategy to increase both economic well-being and environmental sustainability in rural communities, especially in tropical forested regions.

This paper documents and analyzes the recent and rapid regional commercialization of small diameter, lesser-known tropical hardwood species as polewood in Quintana Roo, Mexico, presenting the promises and perils for sustainable management and resource diversification in the context of Mexican economic development and community forestry. We present data from interviews with local farmers and forestry officials involved in community management of timber resources to reveal baseline information regarding the use and management of polewood, locally called palizada.
We found the same permitting system used for high-value timber was implemented for polewood without recognizing the complex ecological characteristics of polewood and the different metrics by which polewood and high-value timber are bought and sold. These factors, coupled with an unstable market for this new forest product and potential for overexploitation, present a difficult situation for the sustainable management of polewood. We conclude that incorporating local ecological knowledge in devising polewood management strategies can strengthen local governance
and is an essential aspect of managing this emerging market of forest products.

 

Autores: Racelis, Alexis E. / Barsimantov, James A.

What makes community forestry work? A comparative case study in Michoacan and Oaxaca, Mexico

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Sinopsis:

Community forestry, the management of commonly-owned forests for sustainable timber extraction, has become an important development model for rural communities in Mexico’s high elevation pine-oak forests, promising socioeconomic benefits for local people as well as an alternative to land use change. However, it is increasingly clear that not all community forestry programs provide these benefits. I use an interdisciplinary, mixed methods approach to understand how these benefits vary and why some communities are able to achieve them while others aren’t. I begin with an econometric analysis of land use change at the municipality level in eight Mexican states to show that both common property tenure and community forestry are in general related to lower deforestation. The bulk of my research is based on a comparative case study of eleven forest communities in states of Michoacan and Oaxaca with varying level of involvement in timber extraction and processing. I begin by analyzing how social, economic and environmental outcomes vary in these communities using a remote sensing analysis of land cover change and household survey and interview data. I then examine how non-government actors play a critical and often overlooked role in the success or stagnation of community forestry programs. I also find that rapid deforestation for export avocado production in Michoacan was catalyzed by the 1992 Forestry Law, which deregulated timber transport, and the 1992 Reform of Article 27, which allowed the privatization of common land under certain circumstances. These results show how influences external to the community can define the range of outcomes in forestry programs.

 

Author: Barsimantov, James

Vicious and Virtuous Cycles and the Role of External Non-government Actors in Community Forestry in Oaxaca and Michoacan, Mexico

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Sinopsis:

Community forestry offers potential for socioeconomic benefits while maintaining ecosystem services. In Mexico, government and donor efforts to develop this sector focus on issues within forest communities. Often overlooked are effects of external non-government actors (NGOs and foresters) as links or barriers between communities and funding, capacity building, and technical support. To analyze the role of these actors, I analyze household survey and interview data from 11 communities with varying levels of vertical integration of forestry production in states with divergent records of community forestry, Oaxaca and Michoacán. Results suggest that strong community governance is necessary but not sufficient for vertical integration, and strong interactions with nongovernment actors are critical. These actors, operating within the existing framework of government regulations, have a range of incentives for engaging communities. Availability of these actors motivated by concern for community capacity instead of timber income may be a determinant of community forestry development.

 

Autores: Barsimantov, James A.

Forest cover change and land tenure change in Mexico’s avocado region: Is community forestry related to reduced deforestation for high value crops?

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Sinopsis:

Forest cover change in highland pine-oak forests of Michoacán, Mexico is due to a process of conversion of natural forests to avocado orchards. Privately-owned avocado orchards are found on land that was common forest before the 1992 Reform of the Mexican Constitution.We ask how forest cover change was facilitated by policy changes that affected land tenure rules and existing community forestry programs. We use a comparative case study of four communities, an analysis of forest cover change, and interviews and household surveys. Results show that 33.1% of forest cover was lost over a 16-year-period across the region. However, two forestry case study communities lost 7.2% and 15.1% of forest cover, while two adjacent non-forestry communities lost 86.5% and 92.4%, respectively. Interview data show that the Reform of Article 27 combined with the 1992 Forestry Law led to collapse of local governance, illegal division of common forests, and illegal logging in the two non-forestry communities.

 

Autores: Barsimantov, James / Navia Antezana, Jaime

Keeping Track of our changing environment

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Sinopsis:

This publication was conceived with the idea of showing how the planet has changed in two decades—just twenty years— since decision-makers met at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro. To relay this information in a compelling and succinct manner, environmental and related trends are charted and presented using globally-aggregated (and mainly statistical) data sets collected by international agencies, research bodies and other official entities.
Major economic, environmental, social and technological trends are shown through numerically-based graphs, with their upward, downward or stable trend lines as dictated by the data. While most of these trends speak for themselves, short explanations of the phenomena observed are also provided for further elucidation. Also included are a number of illustrative “before and after” satellite images, primarily covering the same time period of 1992-2010 and showing environmental changes at the local level. In some cases, these impacts are ongoing.

 

Autores: Schwarzer, Stefan /  van Woerden, Jap / Witt, Ron / Singh, Ashbindu / Pengra, Bruce

State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2011

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Sinopsis:

The first seeds of the forest carbon markets were planted over thirty years ago… but it was not until 2010 that the marketplace’s largest growth spurt came into view.
This year, a record number of project developers and secondary market suppliers from around the world shared data about their projects and transactions. The information they provided revealed a market that has both increased the volume of its transactions and matured in its structure. While the marketplace has taken root enough as to entice new developers and investors to participate, many observers still remain cautious amid significant uncertainties. Despite growing confidence around several nascent policies and compliance markets, the future shape, size, and scope of the global forest carbon marketplace remains highly uncertain.
This second annual State of the Forest Carbon Markets tracks, reports, and analyzes trends in global transactions of emissions reductions generated from forest carbon projects. The information in this report is primarily based on data collected from respondents to Ecosystem Marketplace’s 2010 forest carbon project developer’s survey, combined with data from the 2009 State of the Forest Carbon Market Report and the 2011 State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets report.
The data and analysis that follow cover forest carbon activity in compliance carbon markets—such as under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS), and the New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme (NSW GGAS)—as well as voluntary carbon markets—such as the voluntary Over-the-Counter (OTC) market and the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). In total, we captured responses from 161 project developers or project proponents in the primary forest carbon market and 48 suppliers in the secondary market covering 412 individual forest carbon projects.

 

Autores: Diaz, David / Hamilton, Katherine / Johnson, Evan

Opportunities and challenges for sustainable production and marketing of gums and resins in Ethiopia

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Ethiopia has widely differing agro-ecological zones, commonly classified into highlands – areas above 1500 metres above sea level – and lowlands, those below. Arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs), a class of drylands, are important in both the highlands and the lowlands of Ethiopia. These areas are povertystricken and largely food insecure, despite being endowed with resources that could provide alternative and sustainable livelihoods if they were properly exploited and developed. Vegetation in Ethiopia’s ASALs includes diverse plant species that produce commercially important oleo-gum resins such as gum arabic, frankincense, myrrh and opoponax. These products have been traded both locally and internationally for centuries and make a significant contribution to the national and local economies. They also have a range of industrial applications.
The production of gums and resins can be successfully integrated with livestock husbandry, apiculture and ecotourism, thus helping to diversify and sustain dryland livelihood options and increase household income. The important role of dry forests in soil and water conservation, biodiversity management and the fight against desertification is well known. Nonetheless, management of dry forests in order to enhance the economic and ecological benefits of gum- and resinproducing tree species is limited. One of the major constraints on promoting sustainable management of dry forests and their valuable tree species is the lack of awareness of their importance combined with inadequate knowledge about sustainable production and marketing of their products. Building understanding of the constraints and opportunities is an important step in closing this knowledge gap.
Our partners in Ethiopia and in the region requested the collection and compilation of available information on the production and marketing of gums and resins. The result is this publication, which sets out the need for vegetation-based land management as a sustainable option for the country’s drylands, and highlights the potential and constraints related to the production and marketing of gums and resins in Ethiopia. We hope the information in this publication proves relevant for policymakers, researchers, teachers, development practitioners, investors and the public at large.

 

Autores: Lemenih, Mulugeta / Kassa, Habtemariam

Introduction to the special issue onf forests and gender

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Sinopsis:

The United Nations General Assembly declared 2011 as the International Year of Forests (IYOF). The IYOF is intended to raise awareness and strengthen sustainable forest management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests for the benefit of current and future generations. Yet even as the world celebrates the role of forests and trees in enhancing economic, social and environmental benefits of some of the worlds’ poorest, core challenges remain.

 

Autores: Mwangi, E. / Mai, Y. H.

Moving ahead with REDD, issues, options and implications

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Sinopsis:

Emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries constitute some 20 percent of the total global emission of greenhouse gases annually. These large emissions are not included today under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or its Kyoto Protocol.
If we are to be serious in our efforts to combat climate change and limit the rise in global temperature to no more than 2°C, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries must be included in the next global climate regime.
REDD has the potential to generate substantial benefits in addition to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. These include positive impacts on biodiversity and on sustainable development, including poverty reduction and strengthening indigenous peoples’ rights. Thus, if designed properly, REDD may produce a triple dividend – gains for the climate, for biodiversity and for sustainable development.
At the Thirteenth Session of the Conference of Parties in Bali in December 2007, Norway launched its International Climate and Forest Initiative. Through this initiative, Norway is prepared to allocate up to NOK 3 billion a year to REDD efforts in developing countries over the next 5 years. The contributions from Norway and other donor countries, as well as multilateral agencies, must be seen as demonstrations of sincere interest and commitment to contribute towards reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries.
It will, however, be possible to achieve large-scale and sustainable reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries only if these emissions are included in a global post-2012 climate regime.
While the underlying idea of REDD is simple, there are complex issues to be solved, such as measurement, scale, funding, permanence, liability, leakage and reference levels. Norway has supported the production of this book with the aim to facilitate progress of the UNFCCC negotiations on these complex issues by clarifying options associated with each issue – and especially their implications for effectiveness, efficiency and equity.
With strong political will from all parties, it is our hope and ambition that REDD can be included in the next climate agreement in a way that yields the triple dividend.
Erik Solheim
Minister of Environment and International Development
Norway

 

Autores: Angelsen, Arid

Social sustainability of EU-approved voluntary schemes for biofuels

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Sinopsis:

The rapid expansion of biofuel production and consumption in response to global climate mitigation commitments and fuel security concerns has raised concerns over the social and environmental sustainability of biofuel feedstock production, processing and trade. The European Union has thus balanced the commitment to biofuels as one of the options for meeting its renewable energy targets for the transport sector with a set of sustainability criteria for economic operators supplying biofuels to its member states. Seven voluntary ‘EU sustainability schemes’ for biofuels were approved in July 2011 as a means to verify compliance. While mandated sustainability criteria of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (EU RED) have a strong environmental focus, a number of these voluntary schemes have social sustainability as a significant component of their requirements for achieving certification. As several of these voluntary schemes are incipient, thereby limiting evidence on their effectiveness in practice, we have undertaken a comparative analysis of the substantive content or ‘scope’ of these schemes and the likely procedural effectiveness of the same. Findings show that some schemes have considerable coverage of social sustainability concerns. At the same time, three factors are likely to undermine the achievement of social sustainability through these schemes and the EU sustainability policies lending credibility to them: poor coverage of some critical social sustainability components, the presence of schemes lacking any social sustainability requirements and gaps in procedural rules.

 

Autores: German, Laura / Schoneveld, George

Landscape Transformation in Tropical Latin America: Assessing Trends and Policy Implications for REDD+

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Sinopsis:

Forests are recognized as biodiversity repositories and carbon stocks. Tropical deforestation, however, contributes around 20% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Forests also play an important role in the climate system, helping to regulate atmospheric circulations in the tropics by absorbing energy and recycling rainfall. To what extent these functions can be sustained given the combined pressures of deforestation and global climate change is subject to considerable debate; some future scenarios go so far as to predict a large-scale dieback of forests in some tropical areas. This paper focuses on assessing main trends of landscape transformation taking place in the tropical and subtropical landscapes in Latin America, where forests cover about 11.1 million km2 and savannahs 3.3 million km2 comprising different types of vegetation, mainly moist forests, dry forest, and grasslands. The region as a whole has the world’s highest rates of forest loss, although a large portion of the forest conversion occurs in the Amazon basin.
About a fifth of the total rural population in Latin America draws on forest resources to support their livelihoods. Around 25 million people make a living in its tropical zones: 12 million occupy forestlands in Mexico, 10 million in Amazonia, and three million in Central America. This population is heterogeneous, comprising indigenous agriculturalists and other local people, migrant colonist farmers and medium- to large-scale ranchers and farmers. A significant number of people are also engaged in processing, trade and provision of services around forest and non-forest activities in forest landscapes. The diverse economic activities developed near or in forest landscapes constitute important sources of local employment and income, and contribute to the broader economy through taxes.
Almost uniformly, significant agricultural development for fulfilling domestic consumption as well as growing exports has expanded in tropical forestlands at the expense of forest goods and services. The trade-off between development and conservation in tropical landscapes has been widely debated in the literature. As the role of forests in climate-change mitigation has become ever more irrefutable, the trade-off debate has gained momentum. A number of perspectives on development-conservation trade-offs co-exist. Some argue that promoting intensive and large-scale agriculture could lead to greater economic growth, reduce deforestation and improve land-use efficiency, others argue that community-based forest resources management is an effective way to enhance the livelihoods of forest people and protect forests, and some suggest that diversified production systems and land-use mosaics have positive impacts on smallholders’ welfare. There is no single definitive way to manage the trade-offs, and most of the above views complement each other.

 

Autores: Pacheco, Pablo / Aguilar Støen, Mariel / Börner, Jan / Etter, Andres / Putzel, Louis / Vera Diaz, María del Carmen

Protected area effectiveness in reducing tropical deforestation; a global analysis of the impact of protection status

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The REDD agenda (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) seeks to mobilize positive incentives for countries to reduce deforestation, the source of 20 percent of anthropogenic greenhouse emissions. To be successful, this agenda requires not only financing and international agreement on procedures, but it also needs practical guidance on how to accomplish such reductions in ways that also promote local environmental and development goals.

Such guidance may come from existing efforts in the establishment of protected areas and indigenous areas. Motivated by biodiversity, environmental, social, and land rights concerns, these interventions encourage forest conservation and sustainable use and would often be expected to reduce deforestation. Protected areas have expanded in recent years and now cover 27 percent of the tropical forest biome. Forests controlled by local and indigenous communities have also expanded. An assessment of the effectiveness of these areas in reducing deforestation could inform the design of interventions to promote REDD: reduced carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation. Yet there is considerable uncertainty and controversy over the impacts and effectiveness of protected areas and very few well-designed evaluations. One area of dispute is the relative effectiveness in deforestation reduction of strictly protected areas versus areas that allow some degree of sustainable use by local people.

This study assesses the impact of tropical protected areas on deforestation fires, which are the best available globally consistent proxy for deforestation at a fine spatial scale. The paper covers the entire tropical forest biome to estimate the avoided deforestation afforded by several thousand protected areas. Building on recent advances, the authors use matching methods to compare protected area points with similar unprotected points, controlling for slope, rainfall, road proximity, and other factors affecting both deforestation and protected area placement. Unlike previous studies, this work provides a continuous measure of the effectiveness of protection as a function of varying degrees of deforestation pressure, as well as for different classes of protection (strict, multi-use and indigenous).

Across the biome, the paper finds that protected areas generally have significantly lower fire rates than comparable nonprotected areas, but this differential declines as remoteness increases. Multi-use protected areas generally provide greater deforestation reduction (in absolute terms) than strict protected areas. This protective effect may be obscured because the multi-use protected areas tend to be established in zones of higher deforestation pressure. Indigenous areas have an even higher protective impact. Estimates for Africa indicate modest impact of strict protected areas, but results are not robust for multi-use areas.

 

Autores: Nelson, Andrew / Chomitz, Kenneth M.

Climate impacts, forest-dependent rural livelihoods and adaptation strategies in Africa: A review

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Sinopsis:

The long term contribution of forests to the livelihoods of the rural poor had been long appreciated. More than half of Africa’s fast-growing population rely directly and indirectly on forests for their livelihoods. As the continent faces stresses from poverty and economic development, another major uncertainty is looming that could alter many of the relationships between people and forests. This uncertainty is climate change. Climate impacts such as changes in temperature and rainfall patterns resulting in drought, flooding, all exert significant effect on forest ecosystems and their provision of goods and services, which form the safety nets for many African rural poor. Building adaptation strategies becomes an option for forest-dependent households and communities, and even countries whose economies largely depend on the related sectors. The review details cases of impacts, underlying causes of vulnerability, and identified coping and adaptation strategies, as reported in their National Communications by many African countries to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change.

 

Autores: Somorin, Olufonso A.

Standards and methods available for estimating project-level REDD+ carbon benefits

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The aim of this reference guide is to identify and recommend best practices and methodological guidance to project developers on how to design robust methodologies to account for the carbon benefits of project activities included under the REDD+ umbrella, namely:
1. reducing emissions from deforestation;
2. reducing emissions from forest degradation;
3. conservation of forest carbon stocks;
4. sustainable management of forests; and
5. enhancement of forest carbon stocks.

 

Autores: Estrada, Manuel

Manejo Forestal Comunitario – Grupo Reforma

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Los resultados de conservación del Buen Manejo Forestal Comunitario BMFC son equiparables a los de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas ANP pero mejores que estas en términos sociales y ambientales.

 

Autores: Fernández, Nancy

Lessons for REDD+ from measures to control illegal logging in Indonesia

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Sinopsis:

What lessons for the ongoing design of REDD+ mechanisms, processes and institutions in Indonesia can be learnt from experience with measures to combat illegal logging in Indonesia?
Indonesia has committed to reducing its emissions from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) by 26% by 2020 (GoI 2010). One way the country plans to meet this target is by reducing its emissions from deforestation and forest degradation through the REDD+ mechanism. By implementing REDD+, Indonesia will become eligible to receive financial payments based on forest carbon credits. A substantial amount of Indonesia’s carbon emissions are caused by deforestation and forest degradation from land conversion activities, forest fires and illegal logging, with the latter having significant impacts as a driver of deforestation. Therefore, initiatives to curb illegal logging will have to form a central part of any emission reduction strategy. REDD+ has the potential to help reduce illegal logging activities by creating financial incentives to encourage compliance with the law, changes in behaviour and wider governance reforms.
Since 2001, several initiatives in Indonesia have attempted to address the problem of illegal logging. These include international initiatives such as the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) process; bilateral agreements between Indonesia and major importers of timber; and market instruments such as timber certification. National initiatives include joint security sweeps (Operasi Hutan Lestari or OHL, sustainable forest operation) to combat illegal logging, anti-money laundering approaches to tackle illegal finance in the sector and the expansion of timber plantations to increase the supply of timber.
This working paper explores ways in which the ongoing design of REDD+ mechanisms and institutions can benefit from these experiences. The authors obtained their data through literature reviews, press/media reviews and selected stakeholder interviews. This working paper focuses primarily on the FLEGT–VPA (Voluntary Partnership Agreement), and the associated SVLK (Sistem Veri!kasi Legalitas Kayu, or timber legality verification standards), as a trade-related measure, and on enforcement measures such as the OHL. In doing so, it explores some of the key di”erences and similarities between FLEGT and REDD+. FLEGT aims to ensure that timber is produced in accordance with the laws of a country, using access to the international market as an incentive. REDD+ aims to create performance-based monetary incentives to halt deforestation and forest degradation. Obtaining REDD+ finance will require attention to aspects such as credibility, traceability and social and governance safeguards as well as independent verification. The SVLK has had to develop mechanisms to address all these aspects. therefore, its lessons are likely to be relevant to REDD+ and there may be opportunities for synergies between the systems and the ways in which they have dealt with these concerns. The REDD+ and FLEGT processes are both nationally designed mechanisms that require implementation at the local level. This raises the question of how these processes can design incentive structures given the ongoing decentralisation reforms in Indonesia in order to ensure subnational ownership. Lessons from the OHLs are also useful in examining this issue.
Lessons from illegal logging measures can be divided into process lessons and outcome lessons. Process lessons examine how the mechanism was designed and implemented. Outcome lessons consider the impact that such measures have, or can have, in tackling deforestation, forest degradation and the underlying governance causes. In terms of process, several pertinent aspects of the design of the SVLK mirror the concerns raised in current discussions on the design of REDD+ institutions and systems. The SVLK was initially developed in a context where the existing forest control system was perceived as lacking the independence and transparency needed for international credibility. Much of the design has focused on ways to address these deficits. In terms of outcomes, it is too early to make firm conclusions about the impact of the existing processes. For example, bilateral arrangements between Indonesia and timber-purchasing countries helped to raise awareness about problems with the illegal logging trade in consumer countries and provided significant resources for capacity building in Indonesia. However, it is not clear to what extent they actually helped reduce the illegal timber trade. For this reason, much of the emphasis in this paper is on process. However, we do explore some issues in terms of their potential ability to tackle governance aspects and conclude with a discussion of the degree to which we can expect the measures to be able to resolve more deep-seated governance issues.
!e working paper is structured as follows. Section 2 discusses the Indonesian context of illegal logging and various measures taken over the years to control it (including FLEGT). Section 3 introduces the REDD+ context and explains its relationship with efforts to combat illegal logging; current REDD+ policies and initiatives in Indonesia are presented in detail in Section 3.1. Section 4 discusses monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems focusing on concerns of institutional design issues such as the need for clear standards, independent verification, transparency and the inclusion of safeguards. Section 5 focuses on process issues, including how to ensure ownership and multi-stakeholder engagement in the process. Section 6 explores the degree to which these processes can address fundamental underlying governance issues. Section 7 distils the main cross-cutting issues for tackling illegal logging and the implementation of REDD+ in Indonesia, and the working paper ends with a summary of the key messages and recommendations.

 

Autores: Luttrell, Cecilia / Obidzinski, Krystof / Brockhaus, Maria / Muharrom, Efrian / Petkova, Elena / Wardell, Andrew / Halperin, James

Emerging REDD+; A preliminary survey of demonstration and readiness activities

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Sinopsis:

This paper presents the results of a preliminary survey of emerging demonstration and readiness activities to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and carbon stock enhancement (REDD+) across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The survey was conducted between November and December 2008, and the information collected was updated until May 2009. While the results of the survey offer a useful snapshot of the landscape of REDD+ activities, they do not capture all the dynamics associated with this rapidly evolving field. As the international debate on REDD+ continues, some projects surveyed may have changed their core objectives and activities, while others may never get off the ground. Another limitation of the survey is the ongoing lack of any clear definition of what constitutes a REDD+ demonstration activity. Despite these shortcomings, this survey offers insights on current trends to inform future REDD+ investments.
In total the survey found over 100 REDD+ activities: 44 demonstration activities, 65 readiness activities (including those by the Forest Carbon Partnerhship Facility and the UN-REDD Programme) and 12 activities where carbon is not an explicit goal. Indonesia has by far the most demonstration activities in the pipeline, making Asia the region with the largest number of REDD+ activities. Many projects (68%) are still in the planning stage.
A preliminary assessment of incipient REDD+ investments shows the following. First, REDD+ initiatives, especially demonstration activities, tend to target countries where deforestation or the risk of Abstract deforestation is significant, which suggests realised carbon effectiveness considerations. Second, poor governance contexts do not discourage REDD+ investments, although cost-efficiency considerations may suggest otherwise. Third, although there is scope for natural equity and co-benefits, there is also a risk of trade-offs between carbon effectiveness and cobenefits. Dry forests – where many rural poor live and where there are high levels of biodiversity – tend to be carbon poor and, thus, feature far less in REDD+ demonstration activities than humid forests.
Balancing trade-offs between cost-effectiveness and co-benefit considerations will likely become a central challenge for REDD+ policies and activities. Spatially explicit, high-resolution, environmental and socioeconomic data can offer new scope for REDD+ investments to enhance carbon goals while securing REDD+ co-benefits. Policy makers, donors, and other investors in REDD+ and/or REDD+ co-benefits could assemble such data to enhance their investment choices, monitor their outcomes, and thus provide valuable lessons to inform the national and global REDD+ architecture.
Although performance-based payments analogous to payments for environmental services (PES) are core features of the REDD+ idea, the survey further shows that REDD+ policies will require more than PES-type REDD+ schemes. Investments in improved governance and broader policy reforms are equally important to address the root causes of forest emissions. Finding the right policy mix in different country contexts is an important challenge ahead.

 

Autores: Wertz Kanounnikoff, Sheila / Kongphan Apirak, Metta

El aporte de financiera rural en el sector forestal de México

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Sinopsis:

La superficie forestal de México es la décimo segunda más grande del mundo y la tercera más extensa de Latinoamérica. No obstante, de sus 22.2 millones de hectáreas de bosques solo se aprovechan 8.7 millones, por lo que es necesario apoyar al sector con financiamientos que promuevan el aprovechamiento sustentable de los recursos forestales del país.

Community forest management in Mexico; carbon mitigation and biodiversity conservation through rural development

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Sinopsis:

For developing countries like Mexico, local deforestation aggregates to global environmental change through biodiversity loss and emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Meanwhile, the generally poor people who inhabit forests face their own, local, environment and development problems. These often include water-borne diseases, malnutrition, inadequate healthcare, poor education, indoor air pollution, transportation di, and lack of local income opportunities.
They use forests to meet these needs, sometimes under patterns of use that lead to clearing and degradation. Both deforestation and exclusionary conservation policies, therefore, imply lost opportunities to meet rural needs through wood production, non-timber forest products, tourism, water management, and compensation for environmental services. Community forest management has the potential to resolve this dilemma and capture synergies between local and global environment/development interests.
In Mexico, community forest management contrasts starkly to a generally bleak panorama of forest degradation and deforestation. Hundreds of communities with small logging and forest management businesses maintain forest cover, restore density and commercial productivity in previously mismanaged forests, and reforest abandoned agricultural areas (World Bank, 1995; Klooster, 1999; Bray and Wexler, 1996). Their experience suggests that community-based forest management has an important role to play in reversing processes of deforestation, sequestering carbon, and promoting rural development. Realizing this potential, however, requires social investment, capital, technical assistance, and training in business administration and forest management. The global bene”ts of carbon mitigation associated with community forest conservation could help leverage needed investments in local forest management capacity.
This article is organized as follows. In Section 1 we introduce the concept of forest management in the context of compensation strategies for environmental services, arguing that community forest management in developing countries should be included in the clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol.
In Section 2, we present the case of community forest management in Mexico. First, we describe the forest resource, deforestation dynamics, and carbon mitigation potential of Mexican forests. Second, we outline the social context of forest protection and management in Mexico and describe the evolution, extent, and success of community forest management. Third, we assess some of the barriers to promoting it. We conclude the case study section with an analysis of current Mexican forest policies that favor plantations over natural forest management, but do contain an incipient communitysupport strategy. We point out how compensation for environmental services could create a correspondence between local demands for supportive forest policy and state planners’ interests in foreign exchange and balance of trade issues. A mechanism to compensate for environmental services should support communitybased strategies for natural forest management because this approach delivers carbon mitigation and biodiversity conservation as a byproduct of rural development.

 

Autores: Klooster, Daniel / Masera, Omar

REDD and Rights in Cameroon

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Sinopsis:

A review of the treatment of indigenous peoples and local communities in policies and projects

Cameroon is a highly forested country, with over 40% of forest cover. These forests are home to 40,000-50,000 indigenous people – including the Baka, Bakola, Bagyéli, Bakoya and Bedzang – whose livelihoods depend on the forest and on a combination of hunting, gathering, fishing and small-scale cultivation. Their customary use typically covers very large areas and requires unimpeded access. These forest areas are also home to many Bantu communities whose livelihoods have tended to depend on small-scale shifting cultivation.
In recent years, plans to establish mechanisms for REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) have become prominent in national forest policymaking, and sub-national REDD projects are proliferating.
REDD projects are planned around nearly all of the large forested National Parks in Cameroon, which represents over 7% of the forested land in the country. If the areas covered by the two “landscape approach” projects (which include a REDD component in addition to other land uses) are counted, the land associated with REDD may affect over 30% of the national forested area.

In 2008, Cameroon submitted its concept note for national REDD readiness planning (known as a Readiness-Plan Idea Note – R-PIN) to the World Bank’s Forest and Carbon Partnership Facility. At that time, there were two planned sub-national REDD projects,while in 2010 this review identified at least a further seven sub-national REDD projects.

There are two ministries in Cameroon with direct responsibility for REDD policy-making and related issues. The Ministry of the Environment and Nature Protection (MINEP) is overseeing climate change issues, while the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife (MINFOF) is responsible for protected areas and forests.
This briefing reviews emerging national REDD policies and sub-national REDD initiatives. It assesses briefly how rights and social issues are being addressed in these forest and climate initiatives. Information is based on FPP’s long term engagement in Cameroon, desk-based research, rapid field investigations with communities and interviews with REDD-related agencies and NGOs carried out in the Southwest, Centre, South and East regions in February, June and September 2010.
This paper is divided into three parts. The first part examines national-level REDD planning linked to the FCPF initiative. The second part reviews sub-national REDD-related projects. The final part sets out some conclusions and main findings.
This report highlights the many areas in which existing and proposed REDD projects in Cameroon should change their practices and plans. Given that most sub-national REDD projects are still in the early stages of development, there may still be considerable potential for improvement.

 

Autores: Freudenthal, Emmanuel / Nnah, Samuel / Kenrick, Justin

State of the World’s Forests 2011

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The year 2011 has been designated ‘The International Year of Forests’ by the United Nations General Assembly. This builds on momentum already generated in other international arenas, such as those related to climate change and biodiversity, to bring even greater attention to forests worldwide. Work is progressing rapidly on international forest issues and this edition of State of the World’s Forests focuses on a number of critical themes designed to stimulate greater analysis during the International Year of Forests.
State of the World’s Forests, which is published on a biennial basis, presents up-to-date information on key themes affecting the world’s forests. The 2009 issue considered the theme of ‘Society, forests and forestry: adapting for the future’ by presenting a ‘demand-side’ perspective on forest trends and topics. The 2011 issue takes a more holistic approach to the multiple ways in which forests support people’s livelihoods under the theme ‘Changing pathways, changing lives: forests as multiple pathways to sustainable development’. To explore this theme, the report tackles three core subjects – sustainable forest industries, climate change and local livelihoods – and examines their potential to stimulate development at all levels. In addition, we present new regional level analyses drawn from the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010).
The book is divided into four chapters, each dedicated to one of the core subjects mentioned above. Across the chapters, a strong sense emerges of the wealth that forests offer and that can be accessed by utilizing them for industrial purposes; by managing and conserving forests within the context of climate change; and by tapping into local knowledge of the cash and non-cash value of forests. There is no single way in which these pathways are pursued – sometimes their goals and approaches intersect, while at others they occur in isolation. Yet, it is clear that in all cases, forests remain an underappreciated and undervalued resource that could stimulate greater income generation and development.
The first chapter explores some of the key regional trends in the extent of change in forest area, the areas allocated for productive and protective functions, levels of biomass, and employment, among other topics. This provides an indication of the regional approaches to forest resource use and the measures that countries have taken to adapt to changes in biological systems, policies and new management techniques.
Adaptability is also a key theme in our second chapter on developing sustainable forest industries. This examines a traditional development pathway based on industrial utilization of a natural resource. Over many decades this has been the main way in which forests have enabled countries and people to generate income. This chapter reviews the extent to which the forest industry has developed based on a number of key global drivers, and how it can strategically modify its approach to the use of forests. A key message of this chapter is that the forest sector continues to make a real contribution to employment and economic growth for many countries.
Climate change occupies a prominent position in international discussions, and forests have a particular role to play in the global response. In recognition of this, the report presents an update on the negotiations underway in the climate change convention and programmatic aspects related to forests and climate change. In particular, chapter three focuses on developments in reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and in conserving and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+). The agreement reached on REDD+ in the Cancún negotiations in December 2010 could lead to transformational changes in conservation and management of tropical forests while safeguarding the livelihoods of indigenous peoples and forestdependent people. Secure and equitable forest carbon tenure has a major role to play in ensuring the sustainability of these activities. The chapter provides a snapshot of some emerging legal guidance on forest carbon tenure and different approaches to determining ownership of the resource. New localized project activities on climate change need to be accompanied by sound forest carbon tenure arrangements, which take into consideration the needs of local communities and ensure long-term sustainability and equitable benefit-sharing.
The theme of the International Year of Forests makes people a central focus of activities during the Year and our last chapter highlights the importance of forests to local livelihoods, through a discussion of traditional knowledge, community-based forest management, small and medium forest enterprises and the non-cash value of forests. These approaches have historically been an essential part of local development, yet our knowledge of their value is still relatively poor. Further analysis is needed during the International Year of Forests, to emphasize the connection between people and forests, and the benefits that can accrue when forests are managed by local people in sustainable and innovative ways.
The present edition of State of the World’s Forests provides an introduction to the above ideas, which will take greater shape during 2011 and beyond. Together we must continue to pursue multiple pathways towards sustainable development using forests at all levels. I invite you to contribute to the discussion on these key themes during the International Year of Forests.
Eduardo Rojas-Briales
Assistant Director-General
FAO Forestry Department

 

Autores: Flejzor, Lauren (coord.)

IUFRO Annual Report 2010

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Sinopsis:

The year 2010 can be seen as a year of significant change in IUFRO, not only because it marks the end of my term as IUFRO President but also because it sets new directions for IUFRO activities with the approved IUFRO Strategy 2010-2014 and the election of new Board members and officeholders.

When I was elected IUFRO President in Brisbane in 2005, I mentioned the five I’s, namely Inform, Involve, Ignite, Invite, and Influence as my general principles that would guide me in leading IUFRO and that would help me to attain set goals and objectives up to 2010. It gives me pleasure to see that these were recognized in most of IUFRO‘s activities in the past five years.

One of the most important activities of IUFRO in 2010 was of course the convening of the XXIII IUFRO World Congress in Seoul, Republic of Korea on 23-28 August with the theme Forests for the Future: Sustaining Society and the Environment. This Congress was very successful and drew over 2,700 participants from almost 100 countries worldwide. I would like to thank the Korea Forest Research Institute for organizing this event as well as Dr. Jung-Hwan Park (COC Chair), Dr. John Parrotta (CSC Chair), IUFRO Board members and Headquarters for their great job and valuable support. My gratitude also goes to the many IUFRO members and officeholders around the world for participating in the Congress and making it a truly global networking platform.

I would also like to thank the IUFRO Board members, the International Council and the Review Panels for their contributions to the IUFRO Strategy 2010-2014. The Strategy structure distinguishes between research goals and institutional goals with special emphasis on six thematic areas: forests for people, forests and climate change, forest bioenergy, forest biodiversity conservation, forest and water interactions, resources for the future. It shall serve as a guide for reading the pulse of forest science for the benefit of forests and people.

Hence, in attaining the goals of this Strategy, I would like to emphasize the importance of collective partnership and encouragement to deal with various forestry issues across age, gender, generation and economic classes. It is through understanding of the underlying issues and communication that we can find ways to address these issues.

Recognizing one’s ability to do a better job and the readiness to take on challenges is important as well. This is the reason why I have promoted measures that reward outstanding scientific achievements and increase the chances of young scientists to participate in international forest science collaboration. I commend all partners and donors who have supported me in this endeavour.

For IUFRO to become more relevant in the future and to increase its membership, I would like to encourage the expansion of IUFRO regional activities, particularly in Africa, Latin America, Asia and the southern hemisphere through capacity building programmes of SPDC and GFIS among others. I still continuously encourage the participation of young scientists, students, female scientists and scientists from developing countries in IUFRO undertakings.

In addition, I hope that IUFRO will constantly aim at further strengthening its relationships and strategic alliances with the wide-ranging international community and at working with networks and member organizations to deal with emerging international, regional and national issues and priorities.

This 2010 Annual Report draws attention to the significance of our work and the magnitude of our global network in forest-related research. With this strong partnership as a basis, IUFRO will remain committed to attaining its mission.

Finally, I would like to seize this opportunity to thank everyone from IUFRO who has helped me all along the way, and the various sponsors and donors for their continuous support of IUFRO activities. To all of the IUFRO family – International Council members, Member Organizations, Board members, IUFRO Units and the Secretariat – please support the new Board members and Officeholders as they serve IUFRO to the best of their capabilities!

by Don Koo Lee,
IUFRO Immediate Past President