ACERVO

Publicaciones: Indonesia

Avances y perspectivas del manejo forestal para uso múltiple en el trópico húmedo

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Sinopsis:

Esta edición presenta una contribución actualizada que pretende ampliar el conocimiento acerca de algunos factores que favorecen u obstaculizan el desarrollo de enfoques más integrales en los bosques tropicales de producción. Algunos mensajes clave contenidos en los diferentes artículos se destacan a continuación.

 

Autores: Guariguata, Manuel R.

Mexico’s community forest enterprises provide a proven pathway to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

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The global attention now being directed towards REDD+ as a strategy for combating carbon emissions due to deforestation and forest degradation is focused on increasing the value of forests through carbon markets. This is crucial and must be pursued. However, forest carbon markets are still incipient and await the conclusion of global climate accords before they can flourish. The Mexican experience demonstrates that the same goals—reduction of deforestation and forest degradation, expansion of forest cover, conservation of forest and biodiversity—can be achieved through CFEs, particularly for commercial timber production. CFEs also generate thousands of jobs for local communities, something that PAs have generally not been able to do. The potential of Mexican community forestry to contribute to climate change mitigation has been recognised for some time (Klooster and Masera 2000). A comprehensive study of the potential for carbon sequestration by different land uses in Mexico found that the ‘most cost-effective method for sequestering carbon appears to be the improved management of natural forest on communal lands’ (De Jong et al.2000). If REDD+ can develop mechanisms to encourage the successful existing models of climate change mitigation and adaptation seen in CFEs, this will indeed be a ‘plus’.

 

Autores: Barton Bray, David

Realising REDD+, National Strategy and policy options

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Putting this book together has – at times – felt as challenging as realising REDD+itself, with challenges in both horizontal and vertical coordination. The only reason it has succeeded is the dedication of more than 100 people who have contributed to the book as authors, reviewers and members of the production team.
This book is an early output of a Global Comparative Study on REDD, coordinated by CIFOR and involving a number of partner organisations and individuals. The ideas and format of the book emerged through discussions within this project. Coeditors Maria Brockhaus, Markku Kanninen, Erin Sills, William D. Sunderlin and Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff, have given valuable input all along.
The book is the collective output of 59 authors of chapters and boxes. Insofar as this book will become useful in realising REDD+it will be because of the quality of the chapters. The cooperation with authors has been a pleasure: Everyone responded with alacrity to very tight deadlines and requests for revisions from reviewers and editors.
Therese Dokken has been a very able editorial assistant during this process, keeping track of the 100+reviews, 150+chapter drafts, 553 references, and supporting materials. At CIFOR in Bogor, Indonesia, Edith Johnson has been the managing editor, organising language and copy editing and keeping an eye on the overall process until the final product. Gideon Suharyanto took the lead in ensuring the book meets CIFOR’s high printing standards. Production staff also included Benoit Lecomte, Vidya Fitrian, Daniel Rahadian and Catur Wahyu. Among the many individuals that have contributed, Therese, Edith and Gideon deserve the podium positions in terms of (late) hours invested and commitment.
All chapters were thoroughly edited by Sandra Child, Rodney Lynn, Imogen Badgery-Parker, Guy Manners and Edith Johnson.
In addition to the chapter authors, a number of people responded to our initial survey of key issues and challenges in REDD+implementation or reviewed one or more chapters: Jan Abrahamsen, André Aquino, Odd Arnesen, Juergen Blaser, Ivan Bond, Benoit Bosquet, Timothy Boyle, Carol Colfer, Esteve Corbera, Andreas Dahl-Jørgensen, Michael Dutschke, Paul Ferraro, Denis Gautier, Terje Gobakken, Xavier Haro, Jonathan Haskett, Jeffrey Hatcher, Bente Herstad, John Hudson, William Hyde, Hans Olav Ibrekk, Said Iddi, Per Fredrik Pharo Ilsaas, Peter Aarup Iversen, Ivar Jørgensen, David Kaimowitz, Katia Karousakis, Alain Karsenty, Sjur Kasa, Omaliss Keo, Metta Kongphan-apirak , Liwei Lin, Henrik Lindhjem, Cyril Loisel, Asbjørn Løvbræk, William Magrath, Vincent Medjibe, Inger Næss, Jordan Oestreicher, Vemund Olsen, Pablo Pacheco, Steve Panfil, Ravi Prahbu, Claudia Romero, Jeffrey Sayer, Jolien Schure, Haddy J. Sey, Sheona Shackleton, Alexander Shenkin, Toby Janson-Smith, Tina Søreide, Andreas Tveteraas, Jerry Vanclay, Pål Vedeld, Joseph Veldman, Christina Voigt, Chunfeng Wang, Andy White, Reinhardt Wolf and Ragnar Øygard.
Funding for the production of the book has been provided by the Norwegian International Climate and Forest Initiative, through the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad). Additional funding for the Global Comparative Study on REDD is provided by the Australian Agency for International Development, the UK Department for International Development, the European Commission, the Department for International Development Cooperation of Finland, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Program on Forests, the US Agency for International Development and the US Department of Agriculture.
Bogor, Indonesia, and Ås, Norway
18 November 2009
Arild Angelsen

 

Autores: Angelsen, Arild

Compatibility of timber and non-timber forest product management in natural tropical forests: Perspectives, challenges, and opportunities

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Sinopsis:

Tropical forests could satisfy multiple demands for goods and services both for present and future generations. Yet integrated approaches to natural forest management remain elusive across the tropics. In this paper we examine one combination of uses: selective harvesting of timber and non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. We analyze the current status of this combination and speculate on prospects and challenges regarding: (i) resource inventory, (ii) ecology and silviculture, (iii) conflict in the use of multipurpose tree species, (iv) wildlife conservation and use, (v) tenure, and (vi) product certification. Our conclusions remain preliminary due to the relative paucity of published studies and lessons learned on what has worked and what has not in the context of integrated management for timber and NTFPs. We propose at least three ways where further research is merited. One, in improving ‘opportunistic’ situations driven by selective timber harvesting that also enhance NTFP values. Two, to explicitly enhance both timber and NTFP values through targeted management interventions. Three, to explicitly assess biophysical, social, regulatory and institutional aspects so that combined benefits are maximized. Interventions for enhancing the compatibility of timber and NTFP extraction must be scaled in relation to the size of the area being managed, applied timber harvesting intensities, and the dynamics of multi-actor, forest partnerships (e.g., between the private sector and local communities). In addition, training and education issues may have to be re-crafted with multiple-use management approaches inserted into tropical forestry curricula.

Autores: Manuel R. Guariguata, Carmen García Fernández, Douglas Sheil, Robert Nasi, Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui, Peter Cronkleton y Verina Ingram

Analysing REDD+. Challenges and choices

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Sinopsis:

REDD+ is moving ahead, but at a slower pace and in a different form than we expected when it was launched at Bali in 2007. This book takes stock of REDD+ and asks a number of questions. How has REDD+ changed, and why? How is REDD+ unfolding in national policy arenas? What does REDD+ look like on the ground? What are the main challenges in designing and implementing REDD+? And, what are the  choices  that need to be made to enable REDD+ to become more effective, efficient and equitable?
Most of the analysis is based on a large comparative research project, the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ (GCS), undertaken by CIFOR and   partners.
REDD+ – as an idea – is a success story. REDD+ has been perceived as a quick and cheap option for taking early action toward limiting global warming to 2°C. It also takes a fresh approach to the forest and climate debate, with large-scale result-based funding as a key characteristic and the hope that transformational change will happen both in and beyond the forestry sector. At the same time, REDD+ has been sufficiently broad to serve as a canopy under which a wide range of actors can pursue their own ideas of what it ought to achieve.
REDD+ not only presents challenges but also choices, as is pointed out throughout the book. Uncertainty should not lead to inaction. Regardless of what happens to REDD+ as a global mechanism in the UNFCCC process, priority should be given to three sets of actions: i) building broad political support for REDD+, e.g. by coalition building and focusing on REDD+ as an objective; ii) laying the foundations for eventual REDD+ success, e.g. by investing in stronger information systems; and iii) implementing ‘no regrets’ policy reforms that can reduce deforestation and forest degradation but which are desirable regardless of climate objectives, e.g. removal of perverse and costly subsidies and strengthening tenure and governance.

 

Autores: Angelsen, Arild / Brockhaus, Maria / Sunderlin, William D. / Verchot, Louis V.

The Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests

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Sinopsis:

Forests in a changing environment

  • Forests and climate change
  • Reversing the loss of forest cover, preventing forest degradation in all types of forests and combating desertification, including in LFCCs
  • Forests and biodiversity conservation, including protected areas

Bosques y derechos comunitarios. Las reformas en la tenencia forestal

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Existen varias razones, además de la conservación de los bosques y la biodiversidad, para estar preocupados por el estado de los bosques en el mundo, desde el alivio a la pobreza hasta la preservación de comunidades indígenas y el cambio climático. Sin embargo, hasta ahora se han hecho pocos intentos por resumir lo que ya se conoce acerca de los esfuerzos por otorgar nuevos derechos de tenencia a las comunidades que viven en los bosques o alrededor de ellos, lo que se conoce en la actualidad como la ‘reforma forestal’. Solo desde el 2002, 15 de los 30 países con más bosques en el mundo han aumentado el área forestal disponible para uso, manejo y propiedad de las comunidades locales. Los autores de Bosques y derechos comunitarios  argumentan que la conjunción de diversos  factores ha permitido que los derechos de estas comunidades sean  finalmente reconocidos. Figura entre las razones que explican esta tendencia global el creciente reconocimiento de que la conservación, sostenibilidad y mejores medios de vida para aquellos que tradicionalmente han dependido de los bosques pueden, en realidad, ser objetivos complementarios.

 

Autores:  M. Larson, Anne / Barry, Deborah / Ram Dahal, Ganga / Pierce Colfer, Carlo J.  (editores)

Rights to forests and carbon under REDD+ initiatives in Latin America

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Sinopsis:

Tenure rights over land, forest and carbon are of central concern to REDD+ strategies. Tenure rights shape access and decision making with regard to land and forest resources. Tropical forests, however, are often sites of conflict and competing claims to land and trees, and insecure forest tenure rights are associated with deforestation and degradation. Lowering carbon emissions and compensating those responsible under REDD+ initiatives will require clear and secure rights. This raises concerns for communities and indigenous peoples living in forests, who fear that REDD+ may lead to the usurpation of their rights by outsiders or to increased hardship due to new limitations on forest use.
Although the importance of these tenure issues is widely recognised, important gaps remain in the relevant literature and in country Readiness Preparation Proposals (R-PPs), particularly regarding the allocation of carbon rights and liabilities.
This brief is organised as follows. The first 2 sections discuss concepts of tenure and highlight progress and problems in the recognition or clarification of forest tenure in the Latin America region. The next section discusses community forestry management (CFM) as a potential REDD+ strategy. Following this is a discussion of indigenous territories specifically. The subsequent section presents the current status of country initiatives regarding rights, liabilities and benefit distribution. This is followed by a summary of the key lessons learnt and the conclusions.

 

Autores: Larson, Anne M. / Corbera, Esteve / Cronkleton, Peter / van Dam, Chris / Bray, David / Estrada, Manuel / May, Peter / Medina, Gabriel / Navarro, Guillermo / Pacheco, Pablo

Community Forest Management and the Emergence of Multi-Scale Governance Institutions: Lessons for REDD+ Develompent from Mexico, Brazil and Bolivia

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Sinopsis:

One of the greatest challenges in designing REDD+ mechanisms will be determining what institutional design elements and implementation strategies will work best. In addition to current attention to international and national REDD architecture, there is a pressing need to focus on regional and local architecture, and to understand existing forest management strategies effective in stopping deforestation. Community forest management (CFM) is one proven strategy where collective action by local people can move beyond deforestation or degradation and achieve sustainable management, under certain conditions. Where successful, CFM is often associated with both secure rights to forest resources and the development of multi-scaled governance institutions. Such institutions provide the legal frameworks that allow local people to establish control over forest resources and develop local-level governance structures adequate for new management demands. These local governance institutions can develop when supported to do so in alliances with networks of national and international government and civil society organizations. By comparing cases where successful CFM has emerged it will be possible to illustrate some of the local, national, and international institutional characteristics necessary for the development of governance institutions capable of maintaining forests, resisting deforestation and degradation and generating additional benefits. Examining the conditions that have enabled CFM development could provide useful lessons for REDD+ implementation.
There is growing evidence that varying forms of CFM have reduced, or stopped, deforestation and even enhanced carbon stocks under specific circumstances, and has done so while achieving more equitable outcomes in the distribution of forest incomes and at a relatively low cost. The equitability and cost characteristics (and potential for joining development and conservation) makes CFM one REDD mechanism with great potential for adoption at the local level. A recent study found that the percentage of the global forest estate designated for use or owned by local communities and indigenous peoples went from 9.2% to 11.4% between 2002 and 2008 and an earlier study found that 22% of developing country forests are in this category. These numbers suggest a growing need to identify and maintain institutional frameworks to promote CFM. We argue that the global transition to CFM is central to achieving equity and the democratization of natural assets while avoiding deforestation and degradation.
CFM in its various forms is particularly advanced in Latin America, likely associated with the relative degree of democracy in the region, which provides a context in which local governance institutions emerge and build multi-level linkages and alliances with other actors and organizations. As we will describe, some forests managed by communities, for the commercial production of timber, and occasionally non-timber forest products (NTFPs), have achieved what could be called a post-REDD landscape, i.e., where local-level decision makers over forests benefit by maintaining them, producing well conserved forest landscapes. Latin American experiences with CFM illustrate the importance of providing secure rights over forest property to community level actors and establishing conditions conducive to the formation of multi-scale governance institutions capable of maintaining and adapting forest management systems. Governance has been defined as ?the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised? which suggests a focus on government and the relation between a government and its citizens. However, scholars of forest governance have focused on the role of community-level institutions, which may or may not be part of recognized political authority in a country, and/or a broader set of relations between community institutions and government and NGO actors. The concept of ?multi-scale governance? is used here to include all levels and geographic scales of national and international government authority, local community governance regimes, and civil society institutional partnerships or networks which have decision making power or influence over forest management. REDD+ faces a number of governance challenges. These include vertical and horizontal linkages between and among local communities, all levels of government, and civil society actors. There will be notable power asymmetries between many of these actors, and the processes will necessarily be turbulent, but government policy and international institutions can help strengthen the capacity of local communities to interact with other levels and develop multi-level collective action.
This paper analyses factors leading to the emergence of multi-scale governance institutions in CFM systems that successfully maintain forest landscapes drawing on cases from three Latin American countries: Mexico, which has a lengthy history of community management of forests and Brazil and Bolivia, two countries where innovative reforms have created conditions for nascent examples of CFM. A fourth relevant case, Guatemala, is not included for reasons of space. The further challenge for these experiences will be how to extend the model into areas of currently threatened forests.

 

Autores: Cronkleton, Peter / Barton Bray, David / Medina, Gabriel

Preventing the risk of corruption in REDD+ in Indonesia

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Sinopsis:

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is a mechanism designed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to enhance the role of forests in curbing climate change (UNFCCC 2007). The UNFCCC and its bodies have expanded the concept to include forest conservation and human activities that increase carbon stocks, or REDD+ (UNFCCC 2007, 2009). REDD+ has the potential to alter the incentives for deforestation and land use change and instead to encourage sustainable forest management.
Significant official development assistance (ODA) has already been committed to create the policy conditions for REDD+ and demonstration projects in forest-rich tropical countries, including Indonesia. The hope is that eventually ODA will be replaced by payments for reduced carbon emissions in a fully operational compliance market for forest carbon credits. In the meantime, investors are acquiring – and governments are designating – large land areas in preparation for a REDD+ regime.
Without binding international agreements under the UNFCCC in place, REDD+ is evolving as a voluntary, bilateral or multilateral mechanism. Unclear REDD+ rules, potential for significant financial gain and weak governance in many of the tropical countries involved are giving rise to suspicions that possible speculative processes, corruption and malpractices may proliferate. Such practices range from violation of forest–dependent people’s rights and livelihoods to increased deforestation and manipulation of baselines, carbon emissions reports and accounts. Even though Indonesia has demonstrated its commitment to improving governance and reducing corruption, concerns remain that old patterns and governance failures will be repeated in this new REDD+ context.
This paper aims to provide an analysis of the risk of corruption in REDD+ readiness activities, and the conditions that may influence potential outcomes in Indonesia. The intention is to inform, first and foremost, the government of Indonesia (GoI) and its efforts in building the policies and institutions for REDD+, so that adequate steps can be taken to remove barriers and reduce risks. As Indonesia is at the forefront in REDD+ policy reform and institutional design, it is hoped the analysis will also inform other forest-rich tropical countries and the donor community.
Given its purpose and scope, this paper pays significantly more attention to weaknesses that can affect REDD+ than to Indonesia’s progress in curbing corruption and other associated crimes in the forestry sector. It focuses on the readiness phase – when tropical countries are preparing for REDD+ implementation – because this is the period during which policies, institutions, systems and processes are designed. These will influence the presence or absence of risks and conditions for corruption in subsequent phases.
The paper is structured as follows. Section 2 summarises the GoI’s main undertakings in preparing the country for REDD+. Section 3 offers background information about Indonesia’s forests and governance, reviews the general risks of corruption in REDD+ and highlights efforts to curb corruption, including the involvement of banks in preventing money laundering. Section 4 identifies the risks of corruption in the REDD+ policymaking process, paying special attention to the planned moratorium aimed at reducing forest conversion and the efforts to close regulatory loopholes and data gaps. It discusses how these efforts will support forest land use policies and clarification of jurisdictions and rights over forests. Section 5 looks at progress and gaps in cross-agency coordination. Section 6 discusses experience in climate financing in Indonesia, experience in the management and distribution of funds, and the role of banks. Section 7 reviews REDD+ benefit sharing, with particular attention to the discussion on the Ministry of Forestry (MoF) regulation on revenue sharing from voluntary carbon markets and payments for environmental services. Section 8 discusses the REDD+ project implementation framework, focusing on experiences with licensing processes for forest concessions and permits, the types of concessions for forest use and REDD+ and the opportunities for corruption and their likely outcomes. Section 9 considers lessons from current practices in forest tax and production report reconciliation, the involvement of multiple agencies at various scales and the risks of corruption in REDD+. Section 10 summarises the main conclusions and provides some recommendations for priorities in addressing current weaknesses.
The paper is based on an analysis of relevant legislation, interviews with agency officials, literature reviews and media reports. Given the sensitivity of the topic, interviewees are not named. Their agency affiliation and the time of the interview are given instead. Research for this working paper drew extensively from print media, primarily in Indonesia but also globally, because REDD+ events are very recent and not all official documents are available. Many of the decisions and the processes discussed here are highly dynamic; by the time this paper is published, circumstances are likely to have changed.

 

Autores: Dermawan, Ahmad / Petkova, Elena / Sinaga, Anna / Muhajir, Mumu / Indriatmoko, Yayan