ACERVO

Publicaciones: United Kingdom

Evaluación de las oportunidades del mercado de carbono para las comunidades y ejidos de la Alianza ECOFORCE, México Reporte Final

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Sinopsis:

Las comunidades forestales certificadas en México, encabezadas por la Alianza de Ejidos y

Comunidades Forestales de México, A.C. (Alianza ECOFORCE) con el apoyo de organizaciones de la sociedad civil como el Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible (CCMSS) y

Rainforest Alliance, así como del gobierno de México y el Banco Mundial, están interesadas en explorar mecanismos innovadores para generar incentivos financieros para el manejo sostenible de los bosques comunitarios. La generación de beneficios económicos adicionales permitiría, en primer lugar, mejorar la situación económica derivada de los costos adicionales por el manejo forestal y su certificación por el Consejo de Manejo Forestal (FSC, por sus siglas en  inglés) y en segundo lugar, incentivar a otras comunidades no certificadas a involucrarse en un manejo forestal sostenible y a la certificación del FSC.

 

Autores: Fehse, Jan / Lazo, Bernardo / Reyes, Juan Antonio

The Little Forest Finance Book

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Sinopsis:

The Little Forest Finance Book’s overarching aim is to catalyse an increase in the finance flowing towards forest-friendly development.
It is a reference for decision makers and project stakeholders within governments, NGOs, the private sector, and forest communities who want to understand where forest finance can be raised, how it can best be managed, and the types of activities that it enables.
It seeks to demystify the forest finance landscape, and presents a clear framework of realistic and widely applicable options for decision makers to catalyse further action and debate in this field.
It is grounded in reality rather than theory, and draws on numerous case studies to indicate emerging ideas, best practice, and innovative ways of thinking about forest finance for the future.
As a non-partisan analysis, the Little Forest Finance Book does not favour one proposal over another. We do hope, however, that our work will aid understanding and encourage collaborative dialogue on this vitally important area of research.

 

Autores: Oakes, Nick / Leggett, Matt

Deep REDD+: lessons from a South-South-North collaboration

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Sinopsis:

Global debates about reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and promoting conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), emphasise the need for strategies to build on existing knowledge. IIED helped facilitate a collaboration between Mozambique and Brazil to do just this. The South–South partnership shared expertise, created a broad, multi-institutional REDD+ working group including national and international organisations, and consulted over 1,300 key actors at national, provincial and local levels. The group has produced an approved REDD+ readiness preparation plan (RPP) and a draft national REDD+ strategy, and chosen six pilot sites to test different aspects of REDD+ in Mozambique.

 

Autores: Nhantumbo, Isilda

Beyond rhetoric: South-South collaboration for REDD+

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Sinopsis:

Global debates about reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and promoting conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) emphasise the need for strategies to build on existing knowledge. In one example of South-South collaboration to do just this, IIED has helped facilitate a Mozambique-Brazil partnership to share expertise and create a unique REDD+ working group. The initiative provides key lessons for other countries contemplating South-South collaboration on REDD+, including the need for charismatic champions, continuity in government representation, and integration across sectors.

 

Autores: Nhantumbo, Isilda / Macqueen, Duncan

His REDD+, her REDD+: how integrating gender can improve readiness

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Sinopsis:

To change the ways people use forested land, we need to ask questions about the roles of men, women and children. Nearly fifty countries have begun preparing for readiness to reduce emissions from land use and land use changes under the UN-REDD and Forest Carbon Partnership Facility processes. Because gender disparities profoundly shape agriculture and other land use, REDD+ readiness plans should not only avoid harming women and other marginalised groups, but actively seek to address their needs and harness their strengths. Different genders and generations play different roles in value chains for products that use — or conserve — forest resources. Analysing these value chains provides the data to improve interventions. But planners also need to consider gender differences in control of resources, knowledge, decision-making structures and distribution of benefits.

 

Autores: Nhantumbo, Isilda / Chiwona Karltun, Linley

A facilitator’s toolkit

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Sinopsis:

The goal of this toolkit is to help supporters of small and medium forest enterprises (SMFEs) work more effectively. We have written this toolkit for ‘facilitators’, for example donors at the international level and, most impor-tantly, government extension services and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) at the national level. We have not written this toolkit for enterprises – although they may find some of the materials in component three useful.
We have arranged the toolkit in a series of self-explanatory modules (or tools) for different elements of SMFE support divided into three components. We begin in component one with broad international considerations on setting up capacity building programmes for SMFE support (primarily aimed at donors). We then move in component two to considerations on national level planning and capacity building, before providing in component three more hands-on advice for direct facilitation activities. The idea is that practitioners at any level can dip into sections that catch their eye, and those unfamiliar with enterprise support can read through the toolkit in a logical way.
Each of the sixteen modules (or tools) provides step-by-step guidance, followed by practical tips based on our personal experiences. We have also included a section pointing the reader to other useful manuals and tools already in existence. At the end of this toolkit is a reference list and a glossary of terms.
We invite readers to send the lead editor (Duncan Macqueen, email: duncan.macqueen@iied.org) examples of their own experiences in this field. We hope that these will enhance the quality of the guidance in any subsequent updates of this toolkit.

 

Autores:  Macqueen, D. (ed.), Baral, S., Chakrabarti, L., Dangal, S., du Plessis, P., Griffith, A., Grouwels, S., Gyawali, S., Heney, J., Hewitt, D., Kamara, Y., Katwal, P., Magotra, R., Pandey, S.S., Panta, N., Subedi, B. and Vermeulen, S

The Role of Parliaments in REDD+ Financial Architecture: The cases of Brazil and Mexico

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Sinopsis:

Deforestation and forest degradation are among the main anthropogenic contributors to climate change. REDD+ has emerged in the international climate negotiations as an effective economic instrument with which to internalise market failures deriving from deforestation and forest degradation, plus delivering positive social outcomes. Brazil and Mexico are currently designing their national strategies by which the scheme is to be adopted. Yet, one of the political and academic questions than remains unsolved is how to build up REDD+ financial architecture, given that joint synergies between national and international, public and private funds are required to fully operationalise REDD+ in the countries. In this context, parliaments play an important role in providing regulatory answers to promote foreign and private financial flows. This dissertation analyses the areas whereby the Brazilian and the Mexican Congresses can add to REDD+ financial architecture by contrasting current financial concerns, as perceived by key actors engaged in REDD+ dynamics (government, civil society, private sector and academia), with relevant national pieces of legislation. Semi-structured interviews with the countries’ key REDD+ actors were undertaken alongside a legal analysis. The results indicate that insufficient funds, lack of transparency, unclear liability and property rights, as well as excessive bureaucracy, are Brazil’s major financial concerns, which have already found echoes in the new regulatory advancements. In the Mexican case, given its community-based forestry configuration, REDD+ actors perceive, apart from transparency and implementation capacities, burdensome fiscal schemes and policy harmonisation as the main financial concerns. The study concludes that, since all financial aspects are intertwined, the degree by which parliaments can provide strong bricks to REDD+ financial architecture depends on how responsive they are to integrate REDD+ national particularities into harmonised regulations – and not isolated pieces of legislation -and to understand the arising synergies between laws at the pace REDD+’s donors’ and investors’ expectations are evolving.

Autora: Thalía Viveros Uehara

Green Grabbing: a new appropriation of nature?

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Sinopsis:

Across the world, \”green grabbing\” – the appropriation of land and resources for environmental ends – is an emerging process of deep and growing significance. The vigorous debate on ‘land grabbing’ already highlights instances where \”green\” credentials are called upon to justify appropriations of land for food or fuel – as where large tracts of land are acquired not just for \”more efficient farming\” or \”food security\”, but also to \”alleviate pressure on forests\”. In other cases, however, environmental green agendas are the core drivers and goals of grabs – whether linked to biodiversity conservation, biocarbon sequestration, biofuels, ecosystem services, ecotourism or \”offsets\” related to any and all of these. In some cases these involve the wholesale alienation of land, and in others the restructuring of rules and authority in the access, use and management of resources that may have profoundly alienating effects. Green grabbing builds on well-known histories of colonial and neo-colonial resource alienation in the name of the environment – whether for parks, forest reserves or to halt assumed destructive local practices. Yet it involves novel forms of valuation, commodification and markets for pieces and aspects of nature, and an extraordinary new range of actors and alliances – as pension funds and venture capitalists, commodity traders and consultants, GIS service providers and business entrepreneurs, ecotourism companies and the military, green activists and anxious consumers among others find once-unlikely common interests. This collection draws new theorisation together with cases from African, Asian and Latin American settings, and links critical studies of nature with critical agrarian studies, to ask: To what extent and in what ways do \”green grabs\” constitute new forms of appropriation of nature?
How and when do circulations of green capital become manifest in actual
appropriations on the ground – through what political and discursive
dynamics? What are the implications for ecologies, landscapes and livelihoods? And who is gaining and who is losing – how are agrarian social relations, rights and authority being restructured, and in whose interests?

Autores: James Fairhead, Melissa Leach y Ian Scoones

FOREST PEOPLES: Numbers across the world

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Sinopsis:

Very few comprehensive studies on forest peoples numbers have been carried out to date. A report on forest dependent people by the Statistical Services Centre (SSC) of the University of  Reading,  funded by DfID’s Forestry Research Programme in 2000 found that most statistics available on forest people numbers were more or less educated “guesstimates”. The SSC study concluded that there are “no  reliable regional or international sources of data on forest dependent people”.
Global estimates of forest peoples range from 1 million to 250 million, to 500 million, to over 1 billion The World Bank estimates that about 240 million people live in predominantly forested ecosystems and that roughly a quarter of the world’s poor and 90% of the poorest depend substantially on forests for their livelihoods.  Many of the “very  poor” are found among  indigenous hunter-gatherer  peoples,  landless communities  living in or adjacent to forests, and landless forest workers.
According to the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development, 350 million of the world’s poorest people depend almost entirely for their subsistence and survival on forests. A further 1 billion poor people – about 20% of the world’s population – depend on remnant woodlands, on homestead tree gardens, and on agro-forestry systems for their essential fuel wood, food and fodder needs. […] Indigenous peoples and other communities living in forests and depending on them for subsistence number some 60 million people worldwide.

 

Autores: Chao, Sophie

Pro-poor Benefit Distribution In REDD+ Who Gets What And Why Does It Matter?

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Sinopsis:

Emissions from deforestation are estimated to contribute up to 17 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions (IPCC, 2007) – the third-largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions after energy supply and industrial activity (Karousakis, 2009). It was only at the 11th Conference of the Parties (COP11) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Montreal in 2005 that integrating the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries into the post-Kyoto climate change regime was proposed by the government of Papua New Guinea on behalf of the Coalition for Rainforest Nations. REDD was recognized and later incorporated into the Bali Action Roadmap (Carpenter, 2008), which further included the role of conservation, sustainable forest management and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks, which is commonly known as REDD+. Few issues have dominated the recent environmental debate as much as the proposal of including REDD in a post-2012 international climate policy agreement (Börner et al., 2010). The basic idea behind REDD is simple: countries that are willing and able to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation should be compensated for doing so (Scholz and Schmidt, 2008). It is predicted that financial flows for greenhouse gas emission reductions from REDD+ could reach up to US$30 billion a year (UN-REDD, n.d.).
The issue of distribution remains key to ensuring that the poor or the most vulnerable sections of society benefit from REDD+. According to Peskett et al. (2008), one of the main reasons equitable or fairer benefit-sharing is important is in order to build wider national (and international) legitimacy and support behind the REDD+ mechanism. If a REDD+ intervention is perceived as illegitimate, this may lead to conflict and jeopardize environmental conservation efforts as well as the effectiveness of the scheme. Lindhjem et al. (2009) state that careful balancing between effective incentives and legitimacy is needed. Gaining the support of local, resource-dependent people through improvements to their livelihoods and poverty alleviation may in turn assist in the achievement of conservation objectives (Groom and Palmer, 2008). Lindhjem et al. (2009) argue that, to foster legitimacy for REDD+, enough people must benefit but, if too many people benefit from something they did not contribute to, this will dilute incentives, which may result in lower emission reductions and in lower overall benefits to share. On the other hand, if rewards are given only to certain groups, actions or geographical areas, people may feel unfairly treated and turn against the whole mechanism as illegitimate. Thus, a clearer understanding of distributional issues is becoming increasingly important for the design of REDD+ (Porras, 2010).
Benefits distribution issues are important at the international level – where financial rewards are transferred to recipient countries – and at national and sub-national levels – where benefits from REDD+ are disbursed from national governments to local governments and other entities such as nongovernmental organizations and community organizations (see Figure 1). More importantly, equitable benefit-sharing is imperative at the level of communities and households, which are the final recipients of the payment. Although there has been an emphasis on addressing the issues of REDD+-related benefit distribution at the international level and to some degree at national (or central  government) level, there has been very limited analysis (if any) at the lowest tier of administrative hierarchy, which is usually a village, and how this may affect benefit-sharing within and among households.

 

Autores: Yassin Mohamed, Essam

REDD and Rights in Cameroon

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Sinopsis:

A review of the treatment of indigenous peoples and local communities in policies and projects

Cameroon is a highly forested country, with over 40% of forest cover. These forests are home to 40,000-50,000 indigenous people – including the Baka, Bakola, Bagyéli, Bakoya and Bedzang – whose livelihoods depend on the forest and on a combination of hunting, gathering, fishing and small-scale cultivation. Their customary use typically covers very large areas and requires unimpeded access. These forest areas are also home to many Bantu communities whose livelihoods have tended to depend on small-scale shifting cultivation.
In recent years, plans to establish mechanisms for REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) have become prominent in national forest policymaking, and sub-national REDD projects are proliferating.
REDD projects are planned around nearly all of the large forested National Parks in Cameroon, which represents over 7% of the forested land in the country. If the areas covered by the two “landscape approach” projects (which include a REDD component in addition to other land uses) are counted, the land associated with REDD may affect over 30% of the national forested area.

In 2008, Cameroon submitted its concept note for national REDD readiness planning (known as a Readiness-Plan Idea Note – R-PIN) to the World Bank’s Forest and Carbon Partnership Facility. At that time, there were two planned sub-national REDD projects,while in 2010 this review identified at least a further seven sub-national REDD projects.

There are two ministries in Cameroon with direct responsibility for REDD policy-making and related issues. The Ministry of the Environment and Nature Protection (MINEP) is overseeing climate change issues, while the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife (MINFOF) is responsible for protected areas and forests.
This briefing reviews emerging national REDD policies and sub-national REDD initiatives. It assesses briefly how rights and social issues are being addressed in these forest and climate initiatives. Information is based on FPP’s long term engagement in Cameroon, desk-based research, rapid field investigations with communities and interviews with REDD-related agencies and NGOs carried out in the Southwest, Centre, South and East regions in February, June and September 2010.
This paper is divided into three parts. The first part examines national-level REDD planning linked to the FCPF initiative. The second part reviews sub-national REDD-related projects. The final part sets out some conclusions and main findings.
This report highlights the many areas in which existing and proposed REDD projects in Cameroon should change their practices and plans. Given that most sub-national REDD projects are still in the early stages of development, there may still be considerable potential for improvement.

 

Autores: Freudenthal, Emmanuel / Nnah, Samuel / Kenrick, Justin

Guía para los negociadores de REDD-plus

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Sinopsis:

El propósito de esta guía es ayudar a los negociadores de los países en desarrollo y a otros interesados que estén trabajando en REDD-plus*. FIELD proporciona esta información de manera neutral y no partidista. La guía se encuentra disponible en inglés, francés y español. Las versiones electrónicas pueden conseguirse en www.field.org.uk.
Esta es una versión actualizada (mayo de 2011) de la guía hecha pública en febrero de 2011, que incluye información adicional sobre las negociaciones respecto al uso de la tierra, cambio de uso de la tierra y silvicultura.
REDD-plus es un tema sumamente complicado. Es complejo tanto desde el punto de vista técnico como político. Aunque muchos países están interesados en lograr un acuerdo sobre REDD-plus, del mismo modo tienen distintas prioridades y diferentes puntos de vista en cuestiones clave de las negociaciones.
Las negociaciones sobre REDD-plus tienen vínculos complejos con otros temas que también están en proceso de negociación, lo que puede dificultar tener una perspectiva general y mantenerse al tanto de las implicaciones de las distintas propuestas.

Empowering communities through forest partnerships

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Sinopsis:

Forests support the livelihoods of millions of local people, are home to
invaluable biodiversity, and are critical to mitigating and adapting to climate
change. But across the world, they are increasingly threatened by a lack
of appropriate forest policies and accessible funds for sustainable forest
management and conservation. Partnerships among the historically
‘voiceless’ — local communities, indigenous people, smallholders and other
often marginalised groups — are proving to be a powerful tool for stimulating
appropriate policy and financing solutions for those people using and
managing forests every day

El pequeño Libro de REDD+

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Sinopsis:

Una guía de propuestas gubernamentales y no gubernamentales para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero producto de la deforestación y la degradación ambiental

 

Autores: Parker, Charlie / Mitchell, Andrew / Trivedi, Mandar / Mardas, Niki

The future of REDD-Plus: Pathways of Convergence for the UNFCCC Negotiations and the Partnership

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Sinopsis:

In this working paper Antonio G.M. La Viña, who led the negotiations on REDD-Plus in the preparations for the UN Copenhagen Climate Change Conference in 2009, considers the REDD-Plus negotiations and REDD-Plus initiatives, and shares his views on ways forward.

 

Autores: G.M., Antonio

El pequeño libro de las finanzas del clima

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Sinopsis:

El propósito del Pequeño Libro de las Finanzas del Clima es ayudar a actores clave, incluyendo gobiernos, ONGs, el sector privado, pueblos indígenas y comunidades locales, a comparar las propuestas existentes y futuras para financiar el cambio climático en una forma consistente. Para lograr esto, el Pequeño Libro de las Finanzas del Clima introduce un marco general que organiza las opciones para mecanismos de financiación internacional bajo tres secciones principales: generación de ingresos, entrega y acuerdos institucionales. Estos módulos pueden ser pensados como componentes independientes que pueden ser organizados bajo el enfoque ‘combina y escoge’, el cual permite escoger las opciones más convenientes de cada módulo para crear un sistema financiero más efectivo, eficiente y equitativo.

 

Autores: Parker, Charlie / Brown, Jessica / Pickering, Jonathan / Roynestad, Emily / Mardas, Niki / Mitchell, Andrew W.

Indigenous and Community Conserved Areas in Oaxaca, Mexico

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Sinopsis:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the community conservation movement in Oaxaca, a bioculturally diverse state in southern Mexico, with a particular focus on indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs) as an emergent designation over the last decade.

 

Autores: Martin, Gary J. / Camacho Benavides, Clauida I. / del Campo García, Carlos A. / Anta Fonseca, Salvador / Chapela Mendoza, Francisco / González Ortíz, Marco Antonio

Constraints and opportunities for better silvicultural practice in tropical forestry: an interdisciplinary approach

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Sinopsis:

Barriers to successful adoption of novel silvicultural practices are rarely just technical in nature. Simply put, why do some forest users practice better silviculture than others? Diverse perspectives in the social sciences have been brought to bear on this question, but most efforts suffer from theoretical or methodological biases which undermine their utility for answering questions of interest to forest managers and policy-makers. We argue that research on silviculture practice can better serve the needs of policy-makers if it is approached more holistically and with the intention of answering clear questions about why particular users have, or have not adopted desired practices in particular situations. To illustrate this approach, we present three case studies of research on tropical silviculture practice from each of Philippines, Brazilian Amazon and Mexico. Findings from these studies indicate that a variety of factors may influence whether or not silvicultural practices are adopted. These range from characteristics of the local environment and individual users (knowledge, motivation, etc.) to wider geographical, economic and political influences. Forest researchers and policy-makers will better identify key constraints and opportunities for the adoption of silvicultural practices in particular contexts if they proach research with clear questions and an interdisciplinary approach.

 

Autores: Walters, Bradley B. / Sabogal, César / Snook, Laura K. / de Alveida, Everaldo

Community Forest Enterprise and Certification in Mexico

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Sinopsis:

Mexico has more forest under active community control than any other country in the world. More than 8,000 communities, the majority of which are indigenous, hold up 80% of the country’s forest land. For many of these communities, forestry complements farming, ranching and other economic activities; for some, mainly in northern Mexico, it constitutes their principal source of income and employment….

 

Autor: Markopoulos, Matthew D.