ACERVO

Publicaciones: United States

Asegurando derechos, luchando contra el cambio climático









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Sinopsis:

Sobre cómo el fortalecimiento de los derechos forestales comunitarios mitiga el cambio climático.

Este informe sobre derechos forestales comunitarios y el cambio climático, ofrece evidencia muy necesaria a nivel mundial que demuestra el tremendo potencial del fortalecimiento de los derechos de las comunidades a los bosques para la reducción de las emisiones. Analiza ejemplos de 14 países ricos en bosques en América Latina, África y Asia, que incluyen más de dos tercios de todos los bosques comunitarios de países de ingreso bajo y mediano reconocidos por gobiernos. Se presentan una serie de recomendaciones para la comunidad internacional de líderes mundiales, funcionarios del Gobierno, defensores y otros, quienes, si están seriamente comprometidos a encontrar una solución de largo alcance y concreta al cambio climático, harán un llamado a los países con cubierta forestal para que fortalezcan los derechos de las comunidades a sus bosques.

El documento también analiza el conjunto creciente de pruebas que vinculan los derechos forestales comunitarios con el aumento de la salud de los bosques y la reducción de las emisiones de CO2 derivadas de la deforestación y la degradación forestal. Finalmente expone razones de peso para ampliar y fortalecer los derechos forestales de estas comunidades, partiendo de las evidencias extraídas de diversos estudios comparativos, investigaciones cuantitativas avanzadas, estudios de caso y análisis originales sobre deforestación y carbono realizados por el Instituto de Recursos Mundiales (WRI, por sus siglas en inglés).

El análisis de este informe se centra principalmente en los vínculos existentes entre los derechos forestales legales (o la falta de estos) de las comunidades, el nivel de protección gubernamental de estos derechos  y los resultados de las actividades forestales.

Forests, farms and the future of the Lacandon jungle: payments for environmental services in Mexico: 2007-2014









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Sinopsis:

En 2007, los bosques tropicales de Marqués de Comillas, un municipio en la selva Lacandona de México, estaban desapareciendo rápidamente. Agricultores pobres que habían inmigrado a la región en los años 1970 dependían de tumbar el bosque para tener tierra para la agricultura, y estaban cortando más árboles cada año. Después de 1997, la tasa promedio de deforestación aceleró de 4.8% anual, después de estar en 2.7% anual. Para 2005, sólo quedaba el 35% del área forestal del municipio. En 2007, la ex secretaria de Medio Ambiente Julia Carabias decidió actuar. Carabias y su equipo de Natura Mexicana, una organización no gubernamental, se unieron con las comunidades locales para involucrar a participantes en el programa de pago por servicios ambientales de la Comisión Nacional Forestal y encontrar alternativas económicas a la deforestación con fines agrícolas. PSA, que pagaba a los dueños de la tierra que mantenían los árboles, inmediatamente ralentizó la deforestación en las áreas en las que se implementó. El trabajo de Natura Mexicana en educación ambiental, planeación territorial y desarrollo de ecoturismo ayudó a cambiar las actitudes de los agricultores sobre la importancia de proteger las selvas tropicales.

In 2007, the tropical forests of Marqués de Comillas, a municipality in Mexico’s Lacandon jungle, were disappearing rapidly. Poor farmers who had migrated to the region during the 1970s relied on clear-cutting the forest to open up land for agriculture, and they were cutting more and more trees every year. After 1997, the average deforestation rate accelerated to 4.8% per year from 2.7%. By 2005, only 35% of the municipality’s forested area remained. In 2007, former environment minister Julia Carabias decided to take action. Carabias and her team at Natura Mexicana, a nongovernmental organization, joined with local communities to enroll participants in the National Forestry Commission’s payments for environmental services (PES) program and find economic alternatives to clearing the forest for agricultural use. PES, which remunerated landholders who preserved their trees, immediately slowed deforestation in the areas where it was implemented. Natura Mexicana’s work in environmental education, land planning, and ecotourism development helped change farmers’ attitudes about the importance of protecting the rain forest.

Autor: Cameron, Blair

Reforming forests: from community forests to corporate forestry in Mexico









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Sinopsis:

En este texto, publicado originalmente en el libro Changing Structure of Mexico, Matthew B. Wexler y David Barton Bray analizan dos leyes forestales paradigmáticas, contradictorias entre sí pero aprobadas en menos de una década: la de 1986, centrada en impulsar la silvicultura comunitaria, y la de 1992, aprobada a la par que la reforma salinista del artículo 27 de la Constitución mexicana.

Se presenta esta copia con autorización de los autores.

Forest policies in Mexico









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Sinopsis:

En este texto, incluido originalmente en el libro Changing structure of Mexico, David Barton Bray y Matthew Wexler revisan brevemente la historia de la política forestal mexicana en el siglo XX, buscando entender las consecuencias que tendría la firma del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN). Iniciando con el impulso a la producción privada durante el alemanismo, pasando por la época de las grandes vedas a finales de los años 1950 y por las siguientes dos décadas, explica la ola reformista de finales de los años 1970 que concluyó con la aprobación de la ley forestal de 1992.

Se incluye esta copia con autorización de los autores.

 

Safeguarding Forests and People









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Sinopsis:

Global greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and with them global temperatures. Forests are both impacted by the changing climate and part of the solution for mitigating and adapting to these changes. Forests play a role in reducing emissions by sequestering and storing carbon. They help mitigate the impacts of climate change by helping to regulate microclimate conditions, water quantity and quality, and soil and water temperature. Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (hereinafter Parties) have recognized the importance of forests and created REDD+ as a result. REDD+ aims to recognize and support developing countries that reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conserve and enhance carbon stocks, and sustainably manage forests. Governments in developing countries are now grappling with how to effectively participate in this emerging global initiative. During the design of REDD+, Parties recognized that REDD+ actions will likely not be sustainable unless they account for the role of local people and ecosystems. As a result, Parties defined seven “safeguards” to guide implementation of REDD+. Governments in REDD+ countries are tasked with providing information on how these safeguards will be “addressed and respected.”1 One option is to develop a national system focused on implementing the safeguards and to provide information on how this system is functioning. The purpose of this report is to support this process by providing a framework for what a robust national system to implement the REDD+ safeguards would include.

 

Autores: Daviet, Florence / Larsen, Gaia

Guía para la Evaluación Económica y Financiera de Proyectos Forestales Comunitarios en México









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Sinopsis:

Proyectos para empresas forestales comunitarias (EFC) y para la competitividad en México y América Latina son importantes para el desarrollo económico. El Banco Mundial y los países financian estos proyectos forestales, que requieren un análisis financiero y económico para la evaluación, selección, y monitoreo. Este informe cubre los principios de análisis financiero y económico para mejorar la implementación de los proyectos en Latinoamérica. Los análisis financieros consideran costos, precios, y ganancias en términos de precios de mercado. Los análisis económicos usan los precios del mercado siempre que estén disponibles y cuando no hay precios de mercado se usan los valores de bienes y servicios no mercadeables.

 

Autores: Cubbage, Frederick W. / Davis, Robert R. / Frey, Gregory E.

Special feature: sustainability on the U.S./Mexico border









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Sinopsis:

Old-growth forests are biologically and ecologically valuable systems that are disappearing worldwide at a rapid rate. México still holds large areas covered by temperate forests in the mountains of the Sierra Madre Occidental, but few of these retain old-growth characteristics. We studied four sites with remnant old-growth forests in Mesa de las Guacamayas, a site in the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Chihuahua, to assess their composition, structure, and age characteristics. Overstory tree densities and basal areas at each site were based on measurements of all trees .1.3 m tall. The overstory was
dominated by large Pinus durangensis, P. strobiformis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii (270–335 trees ha1, basal area 24–42 m2 ha1), with a subcanopy formed mostly of oaks. This species composition, combined with the lack of vertical structural development, and thus of fuel ladders, suggests that these forests are relatively resistant to severe wildfire. We evaluated forest attributes in the context of local fire regimes and regional climatic patterns, and found that frequent disturbance by surface fires has been part of the study sites’ histories for at least 250 years. While climate was a driver of fire regimes historically in this mountain range, humans appear to have played a role in interruptions of the fire regime in the second half of the 20th century. Age distributions showed recruitment to the canopy over ;250 years, while fires in the four sites recurred every 6–12 years. Temporary interruption of the fire regime in the mid-20th century at three sites was associated with increased tree establishment, especially by broadleaved species. One site had an uninterrupted fire regime and showed continuous tree establishment, consistent with the self-reinforcing role of frequent fire in regulating live and dead fuel loads. Remnant old-growth forests such as those we sampled are becoming increasingly rare in the Sierra Madre Occidental. The biodiversity and ecological processes that they support are highly threatened and their conservation must be made a priority in the U.S.-México borderlands.

 

Autores: Cortés Montaño, Citlali / Fulé, Peter Z. / Falk, Donal A. / Villanueva Díaz, José / Yocom, Larissa L.

La certificación forestal y las comunidades: mirando hacia la siguiente decada









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Sinopsis:

La certificación forestal marca un punto de quiebre crítico para la industria de productos forestales, además de señalar el inicio de una era que se define por la toma de conciencia de que los recursos forestales serán limitados de manera creciente en el futuro – tanto física como políticamente. Si bien la certificación forestal es un fenómeno reciente por el momento (la FSC – Forest Stewardship Council – fue creada en 1993, seguida por otros esquemas de certificación), el progreso exhibido ha sido asombroso. Más de 100 millones de hectáreas de bosques han sido certificadas bajo todos los esquemas, incluidos el FSC, SFI, PEFC, y esquemas e iniciativas nacionales.

El vínculo entre la certificación y las comunidades es muy importante porque las comunidades forestales están administrando cada vez más los bosques del mundo, especialmente en los países tropicales. Nuestra última investigación al respecto estima que la cuarta parte de los bosques en los países en desarrollo son comunitarios o están manejados por comunidades. Este número se ha duplicado en los últimos 15 años, y es probable que se vuelva a duplicar en los próximos 15 años. Esto se basa en la devolución continua a las comunidades, las cuales pueden fácilmente incluir entre 700 y 800 millones de hectáreas de un total mundial de 3,600 millones de hactáreas. Hasta ahora, la certificación ha alcanzado tan sólo menos del uno por ciento de los bosques comunitarios. De no realizarse cambios en los sistemas de certificación, es poco probable que se llegue a certificar más del dos por ciento de los bosques comunitarios en la próxima década. Ello es preocupante debido a la contribución tan importante que pueden realizar las comunidades forestales en el campo de la silvicultura sustentable.

 

Autores: Molnar, Augusta

Enchantment And Disenchantment: The Role Of Community In Natural Resource Conservation









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Sinopsis:

The poor conservation outcomes that followed decades of intrusive resource management strategies and planned development have forced policy makers and scholars to reconsider the role of community in resource use and conservation. In a break from previous work on development which considered communities to hinder progressive social change, current writing champions the role of community in bringing about decentralization, meaningful participation, cultural autonomy, and conservation (Chambers and McBeth, 1992; Chitere, 1994; Etzioni, 1996). But despite its recent popularity, the concept of community rarely receives the attention or analysis it needs from those concerned with resource use and management.
We seek to redress this omission by investigating -community- in work concerning resource conservation and management. We begin by exploring the conceptual origins of the community, especially as it relates to writings on resource use. The ensuing analysis reveals that three aspects of community are most important to those who advocate a positive role for communities in resource management -community as a small spatial unit, as a homogenous social structure, and as shared norms. We suggest a more political approach. Community, we argue, must be examined in the context of conservation by focusing on the multiple interests and actors within communities, on how these actors influence decisionmaking, and on the internal and external institutions that shape the decision-making process. A focus on institutions rather than -community- is likely to be more fruitful for those interested in community-based natural resource management. We conclude by suggesting that research and policy move away from universalist claims either for or against community. Instead, community-based conservation initiatives must be founded on images of community that recognize their internal di€erences and processes, their relations with external actors, and the institutions that a€ect both.

Autores: Arun Agrawal y Clark C. Gibson

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Índice









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Recursos









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Vocabulario









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Anexo B









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Anexo A









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 23









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 22









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 21









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 20









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 19









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 18









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 17









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 16









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 15









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 14









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 13









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 12









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 11









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 10









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 9









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 8









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 7









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 6









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 4









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 3









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 2









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Capítulo 1









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

Guía comunitaria para la salud ambiental; Inicio









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Sinopsis:

Esta guía, repleta de ilustraciones, es un compendio de información práctica y accesible para las y los promotores de salud, trabajadores para el desarrollo, educadores, activistas y dirigentes comunitarios. Desde el agua manantial hasta la contaminación industrial, desde los basurales de desechos hasta los paneles solares en los techos, explica cómo la manera en que usamos los recursos naturales afecta la salud y el bienestar de nuestras comunidades.

Ya sea aldeas pequeñas o en ciudades grandes, la Guía brinda herramientas, conocimientos e inspiración para empezar y continuar el proceso de detener la crisis global de la salud ambiental. Contiene actividades, historias de comunidades que están actuando para cambiar sus condiciones e instrucciones para hacer tecnologías sencillas.

Incluye información para:

° proteger el agua comunitaria y las cuencas hidrográficas.

° rehabilitar las tierras, cuidar a los bosques y sembrar árboles.

° reducir el daño causado por la minería

 

Autores: Conant, Jeff / Fadem, Pam

The Treasure of the Sierra Madre: Ecology of old-growth forests in Chihuahua, Mexico









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Sinopsis:

Old-growth forests are valuable but declining worldwide. México still holds large areas covered by temperate forests in the mountains of the Sierra Madre Occidental, but few of these retain old-growth characteristics. These forests provide habitat for Thick-billed Parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha: Psittacidae; “guacamaya”), a CITES-listed endangered species. We studied four old-growth remnants in Mesa de las Guacamayas, a site in the Sierra Madre Occidental in Chihuahua, México, to assess the composition, structure, and age characteristics of the overstory, relating it to fire histories and continental and regional climatic data. We linked our findings to the habitat needs of Thick-billed Parrots reported by the literature, and we studied the β-diversity of the understory plant communities at these sites and related them to the composition, cover, density and fire regimes of the overstory.
We found that frequent disturbance by surface fires appears to have contributed to maintaining open, diverse, and productive forests for at least 250 years. While climate was a historical driver of the fire regimes in this mountain range, humans appear to have played a role in the fire regime interruptions of the second half of the 20th century. We found large live trees (>60 cm DBH) in the four sampling sites. We also found densities of five or more large snags per ha-1 in two of the sampling sites, which are considered good nesting habitat conditions for Thick-billed Parrots. Pinus strobiformis, an important food source for the parrots, was common in three of the four sites. We also detected close interactions between understory, overstory and fire regimes in the sampled old-growth forests. We did not encounter non-native plant species, which suggests that β-diversity of the plant communities and maintenance of the ecological process of fire could play a “shielding” role in preventing invasions.
We also collected data about overstory age and structure, and understory cover and composition in temperate pine-oak forests inside Parque Nacional Cascada de Basaseachi, and outside the park, in a logged forest. Both of these sites are located in central Chihuahua, in the Sierra Madre Occidental range. We used these datasets to evaluate the effectiveness of the park at conserving plant species richness and diversity. We concluded that the forest plant communities inside the park are more species rich and diverse than outside the park. We proposed a source-sink model in which regional biodiversity conservation goals could be achieved or magnified by combining alternative approaches, such as community-based management with traditional models, such as protected areas.

Autora: Citlali Cortés Montaño

Justice for forests: Improving Criminal Justice Efforts to Combat Illegal Logging









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Sinopsis:

This World Bank study is the result of special collaborative efforts from a team from the Financial Market Integrity Unit, Financial and Private Sector Development (FFSFI) and the Sustainable Development Department, East Asia and Pacific Region (EASSD), and resulted in part from financial support by the Australian Agency for International Development on linkages between forestry and corruption in Asia and the
Pacific.
This publication was written by Marilyne Pereira Goncalves (Financial Sector Spe-cialist and Team Leader, World Bank), Melissa Panjer (World Bank), Theodore S. Green-berg (Senior Financial Sector Specialist, World Bank), and William B. Magrath (Lead Natural Resource Economist, World Bank) under the general guidance of Jean Pesme (Manager, World Bank) and Magda Lovei (Sector Manager, World Bank). The team is grateful for the help and guidance provided by Yves Aeshlimann (Senior Financial Sec-tor Specialist, World Bank), Jean Pierre Brun (Senior Financial Sector Specialist, World Bank), and Allison Campbell (World Bank).
The team benefitted from insightful comments and discussion that helped shape the paper during the peer review process. The peer reviewers were John M. Sellar (Chief, Enforcement Support, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, CITES Secretariat), David Higgins (Manager, Environmental Crime Programme, INTERPOL), Christina Biebesheimer (Chief Counsel, World Bank), Charles E. Di Leva (Chief Counsel, World Bank), Thomas Columkill Garrity (Public Sec-tor Specialist, World Bank), and Emile van der Does de Willebois (Senior Financial Sec-tor Specialist, World Bank).

 

Autores: Pereira Goncalves, Marilyne /  Panjer, Melissa / Greenberg, Theodore S.  / Magrath, William B.

Busting the Forest Myths: People as Part of the Solution









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Sinopsis:

The long-held contention that rural forest communities are the prime culprits in tropical forest destruction is increasingly being discredited, as evidence mounts that the best way to protect rainforests is to involve local residents is sustainanle management.

 

Autores: Pearce, Fred

Adaptation Finance How to Get Out From Between a Rock and a Hard Place









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Sinopsis:

Adaptation to climate change in developing countries is to a large extent about building resilience, including social and institutional responsiveness to change. In that sense it is about “development.” However, adaptation finance is not development assistance. It is better thought of as a financial transfer based on the “causal responsibility” for the disproportionate costs to the poor of climate change associated with carbon emissions of the rich. Our proposals start from the premise that if adaptation transfers are to be effective and sustained, the habits, culture, and practices of traditional aid programs need to be set aside. The climate community can set the groundwork for an overall approach to adaptation transfers that benefits from hard lessons learned over several decades about what makes traditional aid more effective: channeling aid through recipient countries’ own budgets and systems; making recipient governments primarily accountable to their own citizens for measured results (and not just to donors for tracking money); full transparency to both taxpayers in donor countries and citizens in recipient countries including timely publication of disbursements and systematic reporting of results; and multilateral funding whenever possible to reduce the high transactions costs and the lack of predictability associated with more politically driven bilateral programs.

 

Autores: Birdsall, Nancy / de Nevers, Michele

When collective action and tenure allocations collide: Outcomes from community forests in Quintana Roo, Mexico and Peten, Guatemala









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Sinopsis:

Based on a comparative case study of four community forestry enterprises in Guatemala and Mexico, we examine the relationship between user group characteristics and state allocation of tenure bundles. Using Schlager and Ostrom’s four levels of tenure bundles and collective action theory, we illustrate how tenure bundles and collective action costs interact to either promote or create disincentives for conservation and communal economic benefits. We suggest that in communities with high costs for collective action, a tenure bundle that includes management, withdrawal and exclusion rights yet omits alienation rights may be optimal for community forestry. We also demonstrate how unclear allocation of rights can result in local interpretations of land rights that do support collective action.

 

Autores: Barsimantov, James / Racelis, Alex / Biedenweg, Kelly / Digiano, Maria

Tenure, tourism and timber in Quintana Roo, Mexico: land tenure changes in forest ejidos after agrarian reforms









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Sinopsis:

We present and apply an analytical framework for understanding land tenure change in the wake of radical land policy modifications in Mexico’s communal tenure system. We posit that the changes in land tenure vary as a result of a complex interplay of drivers external and internal to the land tenure unit. Using interview and socio-economic data, we apply this framework to six ejidos in Quintana Roo, Mexico in order to understand the extent to which these ejidos have shifted towards private individual property as promoted in the 1992 amendment of Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution. In our case study ejidos, we conclude that external factors, including community forestry, tourism, and urbanization, have synergized with factors internal to the ejido (including governance, existing resource base, ethnicity, livelihood strategies, migration, and attitudes about property), leading to different trajectories in land tenure arrangements.

 

Autores: Barsimantov, James / Racelis, Alex / Barnes, Grenville / Digiano, Maria

The Management of Small Diameter, Lesser-Known Species as Polewood in Forest Communities of Central Quintana Roo, Mexico









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Sinopsis:

Diversification in resource management can serve as a strategy to increase both economic well-being and environmental sustainability in rural communities, especially in tropical forested regions.

This paper documents and analyzes the recent and rapid regional commercialization of small diameter, lesser-known tropical hardwood species as polewood in Quintana Roo, Mexico, presenting the promises and perils for sustainable management and resource diversification in the context of Mexican economic development and community forestry. We present data from interviews with local farmers and forestry officials involved in community management of timber resources to reveal baseline information regarding the use and management of polewood, locally called palizada.
We found the same permitting system used for high-value timber was implemented for polewood without recognizing the complex ecological characteristics of polewood and the different metrics by which polewood and high-value timber are bought and sold. These factors, coupled with an unstable market for this new forest product and potential for overexploitation, present a difficult situation for the sustainable management of polewood. We conclude that incorporating local ecological knowledge in devising polewood management strategies can strengthen local governance
and is an essential aspect of managing this emerging market of forest products.

 

Autores: Racelis, Alexis E. / Barsimantov, James A.

What makes community forestry work? A comparative case study in Michoacan and Oaxaca, Mexico









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Sinopsis:

Community forestry, the management of commonly-owned forests for sustainable timber extraction, has become an important development model for rural communities in Mexico’s high elevation pine-oak forests, promising socioeconomic benefits for local people as well as an alternative to land use change. However, it is increasingly clear that not all community forestry programs provide these benefits. I use an interdisciplinary, mixed methods approach to understand how these benefits vary and why some communities are able to achieve them while others aren’t. I begin with an econometric analysis of land use change at the municipality level in eight Mexican states to show that both common property tenure and community forestry are in general related to lower deforestation. The bulk of my research is based on a comparative case study of eleven forest communities in states of Michoacan and Oaxaca with varying level of involvement in timber extraction and processing. I begin by analyzing how social, economic and environmental outcomes vary in these communities using a remote sensing analysis of land cover change and household survey and interview data. I then examine how non-government actors play a critical and often overlooked role in the success or stagnation of community forestry programs. I also find that rapid deforestation for export avocado production in Michoacan was catalyzed by the 1992 Forestry Law, which deregulated timber transport, and the 1992 Reform of Article 27, which allowed the privatization of common land under certain circumstances. These results show how influences external to the community can define the range of outcomes in forestry programs.

 

Author: Barsimantov, James

Vicious and Virtuous Cycles and the Role of External Non-government Actors in Community Forestry in Oaxaca and Michoacan, Mexico









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Sinopsis:

Community forestry offers potential for socioeconomic benefits while maintaining ecosystem services. In Mexico, government and donor efforts to develop this sector focus on issues within forest communities. Often overlooked are effects of external non-government actors (NGOs and foresters) as links or barriers between communities and funding, capacity building, and technical support. To analyze the role of these actors, I analyze household survey and interview data from 11 communities with varying levels of vertical integration of forestry production in states with divergent records of community forestry, Oaxaca and Michoacán. Results suggest that strong community governance is necessary but not sufficient for vertical integration, and strong interactions with nongovernment actors are critical. These actors, operating within the existing framework of government regulations, have a range of incentives for engaging communities. Availability of these actors motivated by concern for community capacity instead of timber income may be a determinant of community forestry development.

 

Autores: Barsimantov, James A.

State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2011









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Sinopsis:

The first seeds of the forest carbon markets were planted over thirty years ago… but it was not until 2010 that the marketplace’s largest growth spurt came into view.
This year, a record number of project developers and secondary market suppliers from around the world shared data about their projects and transactions. The information they provided revealed a market that has both increased the volume of its transactions and matured in its structure. While the marketplace has taken root enough as to entice new developers and investors to participate, many observers still remain cautious amid significant uncertainties. Despite growing confidence around several nascent policies and compliance markets, the future shape, size, and scope of the global forest carbon marketplace remains highly uncertain.
This second annual State of the Forest Carbon Markets tracks, reports, and analyzes trends in global transactions of emissions reductions generated from forest carbon projects. The information in this report is primarily based on data collected from respondents to Ecosystem Marketplace’s 2010 forest carbon project developer’s survey, combined with data from the 2009 State of the Forest Carbon Market Report and the 2011 State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets report.
The data and analysis that follow cover forest carbon activity in compliance carbon markets—such as under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS), and the New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme (NSW GGAS)—as well as voluntary carbon markets—such as the voluntary Over-the-Counter (OTC) market and the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). In total, we captured responses from 161 project developers or project proponents in the primary forest carbon market and 48 suppliers in the secondary market covering 412 individual forest carbon projects.

 

Autores: Diaz, David / Hamilton, Katherine / Johnson, Evan

Protected area effectiveness in reducing tropical deforestation; a global analysis of the impact of protection status









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Sinopsis:

The REDD agenda (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) seeks to mobilize positive incentives for countries to reduce deforestation, the source of 20 percent of anthropogenic greenhouse emissions. To be successful, this agenda requires not only financing and international agreement on procedures, but it also needs practical guidance on how to accomplish such reductions in ways that also promote local environmental and development goals.

Such guidance may come from existing efforts in the establishment of protected areas and indigenous areas. Motivated by biodiversity, environmental, social, and land rights concerns, these interventions encourage forest conservation and sustainable use and would often be expected to reduce deforestation. Protected areas have expanded in recent years and now cover 27 percent of the tropical forest biome. Forests controlled by local and indigenous communities have also expanded. An assessment of the effectiveness of these areas in reducing deforestation could inform the design of interventions to promote REDD: reduced carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation. Yet there is considerable uncertainty and controversy over the impacts and effectiveness of protected areas and very few well-designed evaluations. One area of dispute is the relative effectiveness in deforestation reduction of strictly protected areas versus areas that allow some degree of sustainable use by local people.

This study assesses the impact of tropical protected areas on deforestation fires, which are the best available globally consistent proxy for deforestation at a fine spatial scale. The paper covers the entire tropical forest biome to estimate the avoided deforestation afforded by several thousand protected areas. Building on recent advances, the authors use matching methods to compare protected area points with similar unprotected points, controlling for slope, rainfall, road proximity, and other factors affecting both deforestation and protected area placement. Unlike previous studies, this work provides a continuous measure of the effectiveness of protection as a function of varying degrees of deforestation pressure, as well as for different classes of protection (strict, multi-use and indigenous).

Across the biome, the paper finds that protected areas generally have significantly lower fire rates than comparable nonprotected areas, but this differential declines as remoteness increases. Multi-use protected areas generally provide greater deforestation reduction (in absolute terms) than strict protected areas. This protective effect may be obscured because the multi-use protected areas tend to be established in zones of higher deforestation pressure. Indigenous areas have an even higher protective impact. Estimates for Africa indicate modest impact of strict protected areas, but results are not robust for multi-use areas.

 

Autores: Nelson, Andrew / Chomitz, Kenneth M.

Community forest management in Mexico; carbon mitigation and biodiversity conservation through rural development









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Sinopsis:

For developing countries like Mexico, local deforestation aggregates to global environmental change through biodiversity loss and emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Meanwhile, the generally poor people who inhabit forests face their own, local, environment and development problems. These often include water-borne diseases, malnutrition, inadequate healthcare, poor education, indoor air pollution, transportation di, and lack of local income opportunities.
They use forests to meet these needs, sometimes under patterns of use that lead to clearing and degradation. Both deforestation and exclusionary conservation policies, therefore, imply lost opportunities to meet rural needs through wood production, non-timber forest products, tourism, water management, and compensation for environmental services. Community forest management has the potential to resolve this dilemma and capture synergies between local and global environment/development interests.
In Mexico, community forest management contrasts starkly to a generally bleak panorama of forest degradation and deforestation. Hundreds of communities with small logging and forest management businesses maintain forest cover, restore density and commercial productivity in previously mismanaged forests, and reforest abandoned agricultural areas (World Bank, 1995; Klooster, 1999; Bray and Wexler, 1996). Their experience suggests that community-based forest management has an important role to play in reversing processes of deforestation, sequestering carbon, and promoting rural development. Realizing this potential, however, requires social investment, capital, technical assistance, and training in business administration and forest management. The global bene”ts of carbon mitigation associated with community forest conservation could help leverage needed investments in local forest management capacity.
This article is organized as follows. In Section 1 we introduce the concept of forest management in the context of compensation strategies for environmental services, arguing that community forest management in developing countries should be included in the clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol.
In Section 2, we present the case of community forest management in Mexico. First, we describe the forest resource, deforestation dynamics, and carbon mitigation potential of Mexican forests. Second, we outline the social context of forest protection and management in Mexico and describe the evolution, extent, and success of community forest management. Third, we assess some of the barriers to promoting it. We conclude the case study section with an analysis of current Mexican forest policies that favor plantations over natural forest management, but do contain an incipient communitysupport strategy. We point out how compensation for environmental services could create a correspondence between local demands for supportive forest policy and state planners’ interests in foreign exchange and balance of trade issues. A mechanism to compensate for environmental services should support communitybased strategies for natural forest management because this approach delivers carbon mitigation and biodiversity conservation as a byproduct of rural development.

 

Autores: Klooster, Daniel / Masera, Omar

Protocolo de Proyectos Forestales









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Sinopsis:

El Protocolo de Proyectos Forestales (PPF), provee los requisitos y directrices para la cuantificación de los beneficios climáticos netos derivados de las actividades de secuestro de carbono en áreas forestales. El Protocolo establece las normas de elegibilidad del proyecto, los métodos para calcular los efectos netos de un proyecto de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y de remociones de CO2 de la atmósfera (“remociones”), los procedimientos para evaluar el riesgo de que el carbono secuestrado por medio de un proyecto sea revertido (es decir, sea emitido nuevamente a la atmósfera), y los planteamientos para el monitoreo y reporte a largo plazo de los proyectos. El objetivo de este Protocolo es asegurar que las reducciones netas de GEI y las remociones derivadas de un proyecto, sean contabilizadas de manera completa, coherente, transparente, precisa y de manera conservadora, y por lo tanto, pueden ser reportadas a la Reserva de Acción Climática (Reserva), como base para la expedición de créditos compensatorios de carbono (llamados Toneladas de la Reserva Climática o TRC). La Reserva es un programa nacional de compensaciones que trabaja para garantizar la integridad, la transparencia y el valor económico del mercado de carbono en América del Norte. Este se lleva a cabo mediante el establecimiento de normas regulatorias de calidad para el desarrollo, cuantificación y verificación de proyectos de reducción de emisiones de GEI en América del Norte; por medio de la expedición de créditos de carbono conocidas como Toneladas de la Reserva Climática (TRC) generadas por estos proyectos; y con el seguimiento de la transacción de los créditos a través del tiempo, usando un sistema transparente y accesible al público. El apegarse a los altos estándares de la Reserva asegura que las reducciones de emisiones asociadas con los proyectos, son reales, permanentes y adicionales, además de garantizar los beneficios medioambientales, así como la credibilidad y la eficiencia del mercado de carbono de los EE.UU. La Reserva de Acción Climática opera como un programa similar al de una organización sin fines de lucro..Otros dos programas, el Centro de Acción Climática y el Registro de Acción Climática de California, operan también bajo la Reserva de Acción Climática. Únicamente los Proyectos Forestales que sean elegibles de acuerdo al Protocolo de Proyectos Forestales, podrán ser registrados en la Reserva. Otro distinto, pero relacionado con este protocolo, el Protocolo de Verificación Forestal de la Reserva (PVF), establece los requisitos y directrices para la verificación del desempeño de las actividades del proyecto y las reducciones y remociones de GEI asociadas, que son reportadas a la Reserva.

 

Autores: Dávila Stern, Liliana (traductora)

Cash alone will not slow forest carbon emissions









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Sinopsis:

For more than three years, the world has been trying to implement a practical way to tackle greenhouse-gas emissions from forests. Known as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), the initiative was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali in 2007 with great hope and no small measure of hype. Progress on REDD was hailed as a major success at the UN climate talks in Cancún, Mexico, late last year.

 

Autores: White, Andy

Deforestation and Socioeconomic impacts of Natural Protected Areas in Mexico; Summary of Key Research Findings









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Sinopsis:

Historically, rural areas in Mexico have been plagued by rapid deforestation and entrenched poverty. Although Mexico has relied heavily on establishing Natural protected Areas (NPAs) to stem deforestation, little is known about their effects on either deforestation or local communities. To help fill this gap, we use a variety of spatial data—including high resolution land cover data derived from satellite images—along with statistical techniques that address methodological problems in previous studies. To shed light on NPA’s deforestation impacts, we examine the effect of NPAs created prior to 1993 on deforestation between 1993 and 2000. We find that, on average, these NPAs:
• had no observable effect on deforestation within their boundaries at the national level;
• succeed in stemming deforestation in three of nine NPA administrative regions (CONANP regions 4, 6, and 9);
• were more effective in stemming deforestation when they were sited in low altitude areas, comprised of private and state (versus common) property, located far from cities, and had plentiful indigenous inhabitants; and
• did not spur leakage deforestation in adjacent areas.
These results have implications for the targeting of scarce financial and human
conservation resources to existing NPAs and for the siting of new NPAs.

 

Autores: Blackman, Allen / Robalino, Juan / Villalobos, Laura / Pfaff, Alexander

Mexico’s Natural Protected Areas; Enhancing Effectiveness and Equity









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Sinopsis:

Rural Mexico is plagued by both rampant deforestation and entrenched poverty. Between 1990 and 2000, the country lost 540,000 hectares of forest, about 8% of its 1990 total. (FAO 2011). To date, Mexico has lost 95% of its humid tropical forests and half of its temperate forests, mostly to farming and ranching. This deforestation has bred a host of environmental problems, including soil erosion, aquifer depletion, and diminished biodiversity (Cervigni and Brizzi 2001). The economic situation in Mexico’s remaining forests is no less serious. The 10 million people (11% of the country’s population) living in these forests are among the country’s poorest citizens (Segura 2000). Hence, forest conservation policy in Mexico must strike a balance between environmental protection and economic development. It must attempt to stem deforestation without exacerbating poverty.
One of the principal strategies Mexican policymakers have used to stem deforestation is prohibiting or restricting land use and land cover change in protected areas—the most common approach to forest conservation worldwide. Today, Mexico has 174 natural protected areas (NPAs) covering over 25 million hectares. The NPA system is growing quickly and is likely to continue to expand during the next decade: in 2000, CONABIO proposed establishing 151 new NPAs covering an additional 51 million hectares.
Despite the critical role NPAs play in Mexican forest conservation policy, little is known about whether they actually stem deforestation or have significant impacts on local communities. As for NPA’s deforestation impacts, to our knowledge, a rigorous national evaluation of has yet to appear. Past studies have focused on either on a single NPA, or a small number of NPAs, an approach that rules out learning from comparing a large number of NPAs with different characteristics. In addition, as discussed below, past studies of have often been compromised by methodological problems that have biased their results, generally casting NPAs in a more favorable light than may be  arranted and generating misleading policy prescriptions.
As for NPAs’ impact on local communities, very little is known. Clearly, NPAs have been established in relatively poor areas. Intuitively, there are compelling reasons to expect that NPAs make local communities worse off, and equally compelling reasons to expect the opposite. On one hand, poor rural communities rely on local forests for hunting, collecting biomass for fuel and fodder, logging, and engaging in agroforestry and shifting agriculture. By their nature, NPAs restrict such activities. But on the other hand, NPAs can generate significant local economic benefits by boosting ecotourism and attracting outside investment in roads and other infrastructure. For example, according to the Mexican Ministry of the Environment, NPAs are visited by six million people every year, generating $300 million in economic benefits, 90% of which accrue to local 3 communities (Elvira-Quesada 2007). NPAs also may benefit local communities by protecting economically important natural resources that otherwise might be degraded.

 

Autores: Blackman, Allen / Pfaff, Alexander / Robalino, Juan

The Greener Side of REDD+









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Sinopsis:

In the last decade, countries have committed major resources to reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD). A debate continues on how REDD financing should include related activities, such as the enhancement of carbon stocks through afforestation, reforestation and rehabilitation of degraded lands. Meanwhile, several countries have added to their net forest area with little fanfare or donor funding. This paper assesses the factors that underpin the transition from net deforesters to net forest growers in China, South Korea, Vietnam, India and Chile. The authors review the literature on forest policy processes and government-led reforestation and restoration programs, and find their success relied on government support at the highest levels, and forest governance reforms (particularly land and resource tenure systems) to incentivize good forest management and tree-planting. However, constraints to wood supply have caused some countries to rely on wood imports and “export” deforestation, diminishing global carbon benefits. The authors argue that the experiences of these reforesting countries carry implications for current REDD countries. Reforestation programs appear to have a clearer benefit for the rural poor in forest areas than REDD programs. However, both depend on improvements to forest governance and forest tenure. Major reforestation activities must be included to effectively confront leakage and additionality issues inherent in REDD. In sum, while debates on REDD implementation continue at the international level, the authors conclude that improving forest stocks is a necessary complement to successful REDD and recommend that national policymakers focus serious effort on these activities.

Autores: Gregersen, Hans / El Lakany, Hosny / Bailey, Luke / White, Andy

Las políticas públicas y el desarrollo forestal en México: Una historia de éxitos y retos









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Sinopsis:

Departamento de Earth & Environment

Florida International University

– Breve reseña historica de las Políticas Forestales

– Algunos Éxitos

– Magnitud del Manejo Forestal Comunitario en México

– Los bosques comunitarios en 10 estados forestales de México

– Análisis de datos forestales

– Algunos Retos

 

Autores: Bray, David B.

Life Cycle Impacts of Forest Management and Bioenergy Production









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Sinopsis:

The wood provided by forest management has the potential to provide many important energy products. Wood can provide replacements for gasoline and other liquid transportation fuels, heating products, plastics, and a wide range of industrial chemicals. There is great interest today in expanding the use of wood. However, the growing interest in wood energy has resulted in concerns about long-term forest sustainability and the role of forests in carbon mitigation and climate change.

This article provides an overview of forest bioenergy evaluations and a brief summary of the recent report Life Cycle Impacts of Forest Management and Wood Utilization on Carbon Mitigation: Knowns and Unknowns (Lippke et al. 2011). This recent report by Lippke et al. is the first to apply systematic life cycle analysis to forest bioenergy development and resulted in a number of key findings, including the following:

– Managed forests continually accumulate carbon and maintain stable carbon stocks. Photosynthesis turns carbon dioxide into solid wood in growing forests. Managed forests with healthy, growing trees maximize the rate of carbon capture, serve as a stable repository for carbon, and provide useful materials that store carbon outside of the forest.

– Sustainably managed forests are better than carbon neutral? Forests managed for sustainability balance timber outputs with ecosystem needs and social values. Managed forests are considered sustainable if the outputs do not exceed growth and management results in a steady forest inventory over time. Forests absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as they grow and carbon is stored in the wood produced. Wood products from the managed forest result in continued storage of carbon in useful materials outside of the forest. The carbon storage benefits of carbon pools outside of the forest combined with ongoing carbon absorption within the forest produces net carbon benefits that continue to accumulate over time.

– Carbon dioxide emissions from biomass power are 4% of emissions from coal power. Life cycle assessment comparing electricity production from biomass versus coal shows an overwhelming emission reduction per unit of electricity produced.

Wood from managed forests is already a widely used and important material. One of the reasons wood is so widely used is because it is renewable and, through responsible management, wood is produced while protecting other forest values. The growing interest in forest bioenergy creates new questions about forest management, and the findings of the recent report by Lippke et al. provide helpful information for evaluating the potential for sustainable bioenergy development.

 

Autores: Bowyer, Jim / Howe, Jeff / Fernholz, Kathryn / Bratkovich, Steve / Stai, Sarah

The Mexican Common Property Forestry Sector









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Sinopsis:

This report summarizes preliminary findings of the Mexican National Database and Community Survey Project which examines linkages between institutional characteristics in Mexico’s common property forestry sector and economic and environmental outcomes. Framing the Mexican agrarian community as a unit of analysis characterized by its history, individual members, resources, civic structure and property rights, we use institutional economic analysis to motivate project design and research on three aspects of Mexican community forestry governance: first, how communities have engaged forest resources to participate in forestry markets; second, how internal models of forestry management are reflect historical circumstances and practices, policy trends and managerial preferences that are independent of vertical integration levels; third,
correlation among market participation, internal organization and performance outcomes such as conservation levels, wealth and income indicators and public and private goods investment. The project employs unique community-level survey data collected in Durango and Michoacan between 2005 and 2007 to summarize basic statistics to describe the sector from the point of view of the project’s objectives. Preliminary results reveal an inverse relationship between integration into production chains and material wealth measures, no correlation between internal governance models and vertical integration, and significant regional variation in institutional characteristics. The emerging profile shows continually evolving and varied common property institutions and questions “one-size-fits-all” business models, pointing to the need for more specific
understandings of the community forestry sector. The lessons learned can be applied to address the future role of “community” in Mexican economic and environmental policy, and, on a larger scale, the meaning of community forestry management in sustainable development strategies.

 

Autores: Antionri, Camille M. / Rausser, Gordon C.

¿Qué se necesita para hacer REDD+ funcionar en el campo?









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Sinopsis:

Lecciones aprendidas de iniciativas piloto de carbono forestal
Resumen Ejecutivo + Recomendaciones

En la actualidad existe un reconocimiento sin precedentes a nivel global, sobre la urgente necesidad de reducir de manera drástica las tasas de deforestación y degradación de los bosques, para mitigar los efectos adversos del cambio climático. En las negociaciones de las Naciones Unidas sobre el clima en Copenhague, en diciembre de 2009, la comunidad internacional reconoció en el Acuerdo de Copenhague “el papel crucial de la reducción de emisiones de la deforestación y la degradación forestal y la necesidad de aumentar la remoción de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero por los bosques” y coincidieron en la necesidad de proporcionar incentivos para REDD+. Con este nuevo mandato internacional para hacer frente a la deforestación y la degradación de los bosques, existe la urgente necesidad de contar con guías detalladas que orienten la manera de diseñar e implementar actividades en el campo, que logren de manera eficaz reducción de emisiones.

Con el fin de ofrecer información preliminar de lo que será necesario para hacer funcionar REDD+ en el campo, el presente reportaje ha analizado 12 experiencias piloto de iniciativas de carbono forestal en nueve países (cinco iniciativas REDD+ y siete de reforestación), en las que Conservación Internacional (CI) ha participado como socio. Las 12 iniciativas analizadas incluyen actividades de reforestación en Brasil, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Madagascar y Filipinas, e iniciativas piloto de REDD+ a escala del sitio en Brasil, Guatemala, Madagascar, México y Perú. Situadas en nueve países que abarcan las regiones de Asia, Latinoamérica y África, estas iniciativas representan una amplia gama de condiciones geográficas. Socioeconómicas y biofísicas y brindan una oportunidad única para examinar los retos y oportunidades para el desarrollo de iniciativas de carbono forestal en diferentes contextos. Las 12 iniciativas están en su fase inicial de diseño y/o aplicación y proporcionan una ventana de análisis frente a los principales desafíos que se deben enfrentar para aplicar REDD+ en el campo.

 

Autores: Papageorgiou, Stavros / Parra, Angel / Harvey, Celia A. / Zerbock, Olaf

Mercados Voluntarios de Carbono y la Situación Actual para Proyectos Forestales









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Sinopsis:

Estableciendo las normas, creando expectativas, sentando las bases.

 

Visión general

1. Preparación para el mercado: desarrollo de un proyecto

2. Fuentes de financiamiento para proyectos de carbono forestal

3. Los bosques en mercados voluntarios

4. Significado de mercados voluntarios para actividades de REDD

– Tipos/volumen de pagos

– Estándares para proyectos voluntarios

 

Autores: Baroody, Julianne (coord.)

Vertical Integration in Mexican Common Property Forests









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Sinopsis:

One of the missing links in common property research is investigation of the interaction between common property resource users and the market. The present research fills that gap with a study of communities, Mexico\’s ejidos and comunidades, which coordinate timber production within commonly-owned forest land. The key research questions are: under what conditions does a local community overcome obstacles to cooperation among its members to conduct downstream timber products businesses as opposed to selling raw material, and does the pattern of industrial organization reveal complementarities in investments between timber and nontimber production? The focus on community-level production rather than individual production under a common property resource regime also distinguishes this paper from much of the common property literature.

 

Autores: Antinori, Camille Marie

Does Community Involvement Matter? How Collective Choice Affects Forests in Mexico









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Sinopsis:

While current natural resource policy emphasizes devolution, field applications and the few empirical analyses that have been conducted offer mixed results. Using original community-level survey data from Oaxaca, Mexico, a region with 90% common property forestland, this study describes how existing community governance structures accommodate an increasing local role in forest land management. Multidimensional performance indicators for group rule conformance and forest condition are constructed and regressed on measures of local and professional service providers\’ involvement in recognized community forums. Our results reveal that active use of these forums for disseminating information and seeking management plan approval improves both performance indicators, while attendance rate also leads to greater rule conformance. JEL Classification: O17, Q23.

 

Autores: Antinori, Camille / Rausser, Gordon C.

Contractual Hazards and Vertical Integration in Mexico









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Sinopsis:

This paper develops and empirically tests a model of asset ownership in the Mexican timber industry where the timber supply is owned in common by rural communities. A property rights approach based on the incomplete contract literature rationalizes a vertical integration decision at the community level. The basic argument is that uncertainties in production and forest resource management create contractual hazards between community suppliers of wood products and private buyers and that residual decisionmaking rights a ffect community development. The model conditions tendencies towards community-level control with measures of the local community productivity relative to private contractors. Original survey data from Mexico provides the basis for empirical testing. It is found that communities are more likely to integrate forward into timber processing activities with higher levels of human, social and resource capital endowments. JEL Classi cation: D23, L22, O17, Q23.

 

Autores: Antinori, Camille / Rausser, Gordon C.

REDD+ makes progress but ultimately fall short amid chaotic climate talks









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Sinopsis:

After two-weeks of climate change negotiations in Copenhagen, which have included walkouts, protests and halted proceeding, some progress has been made on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) but Parties fail to reach an agreement at the 11th hour. Whilst the outcomes from Copenhagen fall short of expectations from many governments and non governmental organisations (NGOs), Copenhagen was not all bad news.

REDD + Evaluaciones De Opciones Institucionales









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Sinopsis:

Desarrollo de un marco institucional eficiente, efectivo y equitativo para REDD+ bajo el CMNUCC.

Esta Evaluación de Opciones Institucionales REDD+ presenta un resumen de los problemas institucionales que es necesario tomar en cuenta a fin de establecer un marco internacional institucional efectivo, eficiente y equitativo para la Reducción de las Emisiones de la Deforestación y la Degradación de los Bosques, la gestión sostenible de los bosques, la conservación y el aumento de las reservas (REDD+). Llegar a un acuerdo sobre las funciones (lo que se necesita hacer) y los papeles (qué instituciones deben cumplir con estas funciones) para apoyar a REDD+ es aspecto crucial de las negociaciones sobre el aumento de las acciones de mitigación por parte de los países en desarrollo bajo el Convenio Marco de las Naciones Unidas para el Cambio Climático (CMNUCC).

 

Autores: Streck, Charlotte / Gomez Echeverri, Luis / Gutman, Pablo / Loisel, Cyril / Werksman, Jacob

The Mexican Common Property Forestry Sector









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Sinopsis:

This report summarizes preliminary findings of the Mexican National Database and Community Survey Project which examines linkages between institutional characteristics in Mexico’s common property forestry sector and economic and environmental outcomes. Framing the Mexican agrarian community as a unit of analysis characterized by its history, individual members, resources, civic structure and property rights, we use institutional economic analysis to motivate project design and research on three aspects of Mexican community forestry governance: first, how communities have engaged forest resources to participate in forestry markets; second, how internal models of forestry management are reflect historical circumstances and practices, policy trends and managerial preferences that are independent of vertical integration levels; third, correlation among market participation, internal organization and performance outcomes such as conservation levels, wealth and income indicators and public and private goods investment. The project employs unique community-level survey data collected in Durango and Michoacan between 2005 and 2007 to summarize basic statistics to describe the sector from the point of view of the project’s objectives. Preliminary results reveal an inverse relationship between integration into production chains and material wealth measures, no correlation between internal governance models and vertical integration, and significant regional variation in institutional characteristics. The emerging profile shows continually evolving and varied common property institutions and questions “one-size-fits-all” business models, pointing to the need for more specific understandings of the community forestry sector. The lessons learned can be applied to address the future role of “community” in Mexican economic and environmental policy, and, on a larger scale, the meaning of community forestry management in sustainable development strategies.

 

Autores: Antinori, Camille M. / Rausser, Gordon C.

Reducción de Emisiones de la deforestación y la degradación de bosques (REDD): Reporte de Evaluación









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Sinopsis:

El Mapa de Ruta de Bali debe conducir a un acuerdo Copenhague que compromete a una estabilización a un máximo de aumento de 2°C en la temperatura, acorde con concentraciones de CO2 por debajo de 450 partes por millón (ppm). Reducir las emisiones de la deforestación y degradación de bosques (REDD) atenderá una fuente de emisiones de gas de invernadero (GEI) mayor que todo el sector transportes del mundo. Sin REDD, no se alcanzará la meta de estabilización climática de 2°C.

Este informe evalúa varias consideraciones importantes para un futuro mecanismo REDD dentro del CMNUCC, y busca aclarar e informar acerca de las alternativas cruciales que se deben hacer para incluir REDD en un acuerdo Copenhague1. En el plano internacional, un buen resultado para REDD crearía las condiciones habilitantes para una ejecución efectiva en países REDD.

 

Autores: Angelsend, Arild / Brown, Sandra / Loisel, Cyril / Peskett, Leo / Streck, Charlotte / Zarin, Daniel (coord.)

Mexico´s Community-Managed Forests as a Global Model for Sustainable Landscapes









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Sinopsis:

Researchers concerned with sustainable management of forests in the tropics have argued that the road to improved stewardship of forest resources is the transfer of responsibility to the local communities who get their livelihoods from them. On the other hand, conservationists have declared that the only way to stem the tide of deforestation is to place as many tracts as possible under strict protection. In this context, Mexico presents a national laboratory for studying the social and ecological benefits of delivering forests to local people. As a little-noticed result of the Mexican Revolution in the second decade of the twentieth century, well over half of the forests of Mexico were placed in community-held lands. In historic struggles that passed through several phases, most of these communities have now gained substantial control over the use of their forests. Because of the substantial degree of social capital in rural forms of organization in Mexico, this control of forest resources has led to an estimated 290-479 community forest enterprises (CFEs), through which communities are producing timber on their own lands. New studies are beginning to suggest that important gains in both social and economic justice, good forest management, and biodiversity protection are resulting from the actions of these CFEs. As more forests globally are being devolved to local communities, it is important to carry out more research on the Mexican model of community forest management for timber production.

 

Autores: Barton Bray, David / MErino Pérez, Leticia / Negreros Castillo, Patricia / Segura Warnholtz, Gerardo / Torres Rojo, Juan Manuel / Vester, Henricus F. M.

State of the World; Transforming Cultures from Consumerism to Sustainability









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Sinopsis:

For the vast majority of children in industrial countries, school food is something that has to be endured rather than enjoyed—a rite of passage to an adult world where healthy eating is the exception, rather than the norm, as evidenced by the burgeoning problems of diet-related diseases. Millions of children in developing countries have to endure something far worse, of course, because school food is still conspicuous by its absence in many cases…

 

Autores: Morgan, Kevin / Sonnino, Roberta

REDD+ Institutional Options Assessment









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Sinopsis:

This REDD+ Institutional Options Assessment summarizes the institutional issues that must be considered in order to establish an effective, efficient, and equitable international institutional framework for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation, forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). Reaching an agreement on the functions (what needs to the done) and roles (which institutions should perform these functions) to support REDD+ is a central aspect of the negotiations on enhanced mitigation action by developing countries under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

 

Autores: Streck, Charlotte / Gómez Echeverri, Luis / Gutman, Pablo / Loisel, Cyril / Werksman, Jacob

Does the Opportunity Cost Approach Indicate the Real Cost of REDD+?









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Sinopsis:

There is international agreement to include REDD+1 among the global climate mitigation strategies. REDD+ is widely supported for two main reasons: first because deforestation accounts for somewhere between 12 to 18 % of global GHG emissions, and second because addressing this problem is widely thought to be the low-cost option to curtail CO2 emissions. In this paper we question whether the opportunity cost approach used in most of the major global climate change studies covering REDD opportunities2 provides realistic estimates of payments actually needed to implement equitable and effective REDD+ programs.

There is no question that in a well-functioning market economy opportunity cost provides a conceptually satisfactory indicator of the minimum amount that would need to be paid to forest owners or users not to deforest, under the assumption that a rational economic entity would want to be paid at least as much as the entity gives up by not deforesting.4 As a side point, in the particular case of REDD+, the additionality and non leakage criteria have to be met in order for opportunity cost or any other indicator of cost to be a meaningful indicator in determining justifiable payments for REDD. Since these criteria apply regardless of what measure of cost or needed payment is used, we do not delve further into them in this paper.

While in theory and under certain real-world conditions opportunity cost provides a useful indicator of payments needed, we see a number of problems in using it in the main political, social and economic contexts faced in the tropical countries that will be implementing REDD+. Relying on these estimates could lead us in the wrong direction and could discourage many potential supporters, once the real required payments and costs are recognized. Below we summarize some of the main contextual issues that need to be addressed in using opportunity cost indicators. The following paragraphs discuss the issues in detail. The final part of the paper refocuses the discussion on some of the other cost and institutional investment related issues that we need to focus on and address as the international community moves forward with REDD+.
First, opportunity cost may be inappropriate, e.g., in the case of illegal logging and other illegal activities that result in deforestation. Second, it may be inadequate in terms of understanding what payments are needed to halt deforestation, e.g., in cases where there are side payments being made or where decisions that lead to deforestation have been made for strong political reasons, or where the groups involved don’t really understand what they would be promising and what their alternatives are, or where property and/or land use rights are not adequately defined.
Third, if one is not dealing with a well-functioning market system, it may be difficult to estimate opportunity cost correctly, e.g., in the case of slash and burn farmers or shifting cultivators that operate mostly outside established market systems. This is because it is perceived opportunity cost by the recipient that matters in terms of providing incentive not to deforest; and that might be extremely high if perceived survival this coming year depends on deforesting and growing crops on the cleared land. The farmers may face a great deal of uncertainty as to what this payment not to deforest means. The nature of the aspirations of the poor to get themselves and particularly their children out of poverty, and their perceptions of what is needed to do so also comes into play here. There is a fairness issue that needs to be addressed.
Fourth, and related to the previous point, if major carbon offset markets develop, then the price paid to forest land owners not to deforest and thus create the offsets would be determined by the market and not the various opportunity costs of the various forest owners or potential users of the forest. In a well functioning carbon market, forest owners at the margin would get paid their perceived opportunity cost, while all others would be earning Ricardian rents above their various opportunity costs, since they would be lower than the market clearing price. If the actual value of REDD+ payments is to be anywhere near the value derived by aggregating across opportunity costs of various forest owners/users, then one needs to make the unrealistic assumption that there will be some sort of “discriminatory price tender” where everyone will bid their lowest acceptable price (i.e., their opportunity cost) to some discriminating entity that then will pay them that price.
There are many more potential issues that need to be addressed in developing realistic estimates payments and costs required for successful REDD+. For example, if there are perverse incentives that encourage deforestation, then they must be dealt with or built into the costs that need to be covered. Some twenty years ago, Binswanger (1991) argued strongly that efforts to curtail deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon were hampered by “… tax policies, special tax incentives, rules of land allocation and an agricultural credit system that all accelerate deforestation in the Amazon.” While Brazil has addressed many of these distorting policies, some remain and need to be factored into calculations of what the realistic cost of reducing deforestation will be. Binswanger points out that no matter how good the incentives are, there will be need for substantial investment in the strengthening of the enforcement of laws and regulations related to forest use and misuse. This point has been echoed by many since then (cf. Caldas et al 2010). The costs of policy reform need to be built into the bottom line estimates of what it realistically will cost to reduce deforestation.
There also is the question of how opportunity costs are estimated. As pointed out by Wertz- Kanounnikoff (2008), the two main approaches to estimating opportunity costs are empirical (global and local) models and global simulation models. Opportunity cost estimates vary widely, depending on which method is used. Wertz-Kanounnikoff concludes that: “The ‘true’ cost estimate is most likely to lie somewhere in between the values provided by the local-empirical models on the one hand (lower end) and global simulation models on the other (higher end).” (p.5) This point also is made by Pirard (2008a): “numerous interpretations of the opportunity cost concept coexist in the literature and in influential reports (e.g. Stern review), with differing estimated values for similar cases.”.
Finally, we have to remember that opportunity cost is not a static concept. It changes as market forces change, as technology improves, and as new technologies emerge. In the particular case of deforestation to open land for bioenergy crops, Persson and Azar (2010) point out that if the price of carbon increases so would the price of bioenergy produced from bioenergy crops that are responsible for a significant amount of deforestation. Land prices, in turn, also would go up, since the opportunity cost of not producing the bioenergy crop would increase. This relationship would continue up to the point where other renewable, non-land intensive energy alternatives would become competitive. Most of the existing studies do not add a dynamic perspective on how opportunity costs will change as relative demand and supply conditions for timber or products produced on cleared forest land will change (under the assumption of negligible leakage).
While these limitations on the use of opportunity cost for estimating payments required for successful REDD+ are not new to most economists, they have not been discussed adequately and focused on in policy discussions on the likely real cost of REDD+. The same can be said about the costs of resolving equity and rights issues related to slash and burn agriculture and dealing with disputes over land rights and titles.
The basic point of this paper is that the contextual issues influencing the adequacy and appropriateness of opportunity cost as a proxy for payments required to get successful REDD+ can be major ones in in most tropical developing countries; and resolving them can be expensive and time consuming. More assessment and discussion of these issues are needed. Without esolving them, the opportunity cost estimates could misguide us in terms of reaching the ultimate goal for REDD+. The contextual issues relate to the institutional side of REDD+: to governance issues, to basic property and use rights in relation to the main drivers of deforestation and degradation, to links between REDD payments and leakages and “environmental blackmail,” to logistical problems (transactions costs) in making payments to forest owners and users, to problems of corruption and illegal activity, to the nature and size of the associated transactions, implementation and institutional investment costs required to make REDD work effectively, and to demand and market issues. They also relate very directly to questions of fairness and income distribution. In the words of one of our reviewers, “… the poor need to be compensated a lot less because they are, well, poor.”

 

Autores: Gregersen, Hans / El Lakany, Hosny / Karsenty, Alain / White, Andy

Participatory rural appraisal for community forest management









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Sinopsis:

The Asia Forest Network supports the role of communities in protection and sustainable use of natural forests. AFN is comprised of a select coalition of Asian planners, foresters, and scientists from government agencies, universities, and non-government organizations. Solidarity of AFN members is based on a common commitment to exploring alternative management strategies for Asia’s natural forestlands. AFN’s research emphasis includes the ecology of natural regeneration, the economics of non-timber forest product systems, and the community organizations and institutional arrangements that support participatory management. Lessons stemming from this research are used to inform field implementation procedures, reorient training, and guide policy reform.
We sincerely hope that this manual will be helpful to foresters, community leaders, NGOs, and others who are working to make natural resource management a collaborative and equitable process. Because there are numerous publications that describe participatory techniques, we have provided a reference list at the end of the manual.
This manual has been developed as an output of the Community Forest Management Support Project 2000 for Southeast Asia. The project has been generously funded by the European Commission and we are very appreciative for their support. We would also like to thank the following: Emily Bosanquet for compiling the information and writing up the manual; Kate Smith-Hanssen for her organizational help, editorial guidance, and layout assistance; Nancy Coburn for copy editing; Kristal Passy for binding the manual; and, Mark Poffenberger for contributing his expertise and guidance. We also want to express our appreciation for the many publications that came before us, providing us with useful illustrations and examples. Those references are included in the resource list at the end. The authors take full responsibility for any errors or omissions. The observations and opinions expressed in this publication are the author’s and do not necessarily reflect any opinion whatever of the European Commission.

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestion









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Sinopsis:

This methodology is for project activities that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from mosaic deforestation2 and, where relevant and measurable, enhance carbon stocks of degraded and secondary forests that would be deforested in absence of the project activity.
The methodology is applicable under the following conditions:
a) At project commencement most of the project area is already accessible to deforestation agents.
b) Baseline activities that may be displaced by the RED project activity include logging,
fuel-wood collection, charcoal production, agricultural and grazing activities.
c) The project area can include different types of forest, such as old-growth forest, degraded forest, secondary forests, planted forests and agro-forestry systems meeting the definition of “forest”.
d) Changes in the ground water table are excluded in both the baseline and project scenarios.
e) At project commencement, all land within the project area meets the criteria for definition as forest.

 

Autores: Pedroni, Lucio

Clean Energy & Climate Change Opportunities









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Sinopsis:

In Fiscal Year 2010, the U.S. Congress responded to the President’s request for additional climate change funding by appropriating $305 million for USAID climate change programs in three pillar areas: Adaptation, Clean Energy and Sustainable Landscapes. This assessment seeks to identify opportunities for the USAID/Mexico Mission to address high?priority clean energy and climate change challenges in Mexico and provide the Mission with recommendations for the design of a new Mission clean energy and climate change program.
Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, behind Brazil, with some 107.6 million inhabitants. It contributes about 1.6% of the global emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) that are responsible for global climate change, and ranks 13th among the largest emitting countries of the world.1 Between 1990 and 2006, Mexico’s GHG emissions grew by 40%, amounting to an annual increase of 2.4%.2 Under President Calderon, Mexico has made climate change a top national priority and has integrated climate change into the country’s development strategy. In addition to having signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol, Mexico is the only developing country to submit a Third and Fourth National Communication to the UNFCCC with a detailed updated inventory of its GHG emissions and long term emissions trajectories

 

Autores: Garrison, John L.

The Community as an Entrepreneurial Firm: Common Property Capitalism in Mexican Forest Communities Creates Jobs, Competes in Global Markets, and Conserves Biodiversity









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Sinopsis:

A través del artículo, el profesor David Bray estudia la posibilidad de que las comunidades puedan manejar y administrar sus recursos. El autor utiliza el término de “comunidad como firma empresarial” para demostrar que las comunidades tienen la capacidad de administrarse a sí mismas para obtener un beneficio común, contrario a lo que se pensaba anteriormente. En este artículo se retoma el ejemplo mexicano de la comunidad de Ixtlán, ubicada en Oaxaca, donde la organización se ha desarrollado de manera compleja.

Este artículo fue publicado en Febrero 15 de 2010 por America\’s Quarterly

 

Autores: Barton Bray, David

Who owns the world’s forests? Forest tenure and public forests in transition









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Sinopsis:

There has been much attention and effort-on national and international levels-devoted over past decades to global probelms of deforestation and forest degradation and to improving forest management and conservation. The number of protected areas has increased dramatically; new funds have been established to finance protection. Also, many international and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have moved to develop markets for sustainably-produced forest products.

Despite these efforts, forest degradation has steadily increased throughout much of the world.At the same time there is growing realization that insecure property rights are a key underlaying problem and cause of degradation. Property rights to forest lands and resources are often contested, overlapping or simply unenforced. Much of the global forest estate is characterized by confusion and insecurity over property rights. This insecurity undermines sound forest management, for without secure rights forest holders have few incentives-and often lack legal status-to invest in managing and protecting their forest resoruces. While secure property rights cannot ensure sustained protection and investments in an asset, they are often a necessary condition.

This growing global recognitiion of the importance of property rights is mirrored by longstanding preoccupation with rights issues at local levels. The question of who owns forests, who claims them, who has acces to them and further, who should own them, are hotly contested in many forest regions of the world. These are often the primary concerns of local people most directly dependent on forest resources.

Growing interest in developing markets for environmental services has also brought new attention to property rights issues. Many governments, local organizations and private-sector actors are beginning to consider questions of ownership regarding the services provided by forests, such as carbon sequestration, biodiversity habitat and watershed protection. They are considering who should pay for the production and maintenance of these services. The ways in which existing cultural, legal, and regulatory mechanisms should be applied of these potentially marketable services is likewise becoming a source of considerable debate.

This publication is designed to highlight trends in tenure and to provide data for more informed decisions by policy makers, governments, companies, investors, local communities, research institutions and concerned NGOs. We also intend to highlight gaps in available information and raise the question of who owns-and who should own-the world´s forests.

Andy White and Alejandra Martin led the analysis presented here, working with Owen J. Lynch of the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL). Given that official information on tenure distribution ermains limited, this report serves as an alert about the magnitude of the issue´s importante. It complements two other publications from Forest Trends on forest tenure: Strategles for Strengthening Community Property Rights over Forests: Lessons for Practitioners and A Place in the World: Tenure Security and Community Livelihoods.

Michael Jenkins

President

Forest Trends

 

Autores: White, Andy / Martin, Alejandra

Low-Carbon Development for Mexico









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Sinopsis:

One of the most compelling reasons for pursuing low-carbon development is that the potential impacts of climate change are predicted to be severe, for both industrial and developing countries, and that reducing greenhouse gas emissions can reduce the risk of the most catastrophic impacts. The challenge of reducing emissions is sobering: leading scientific models indicate that limiting the rise in global mean temperatures to less than 2oC will require that global greenhouse gas emissions peak within the next 10–15 years and then fall by 2050 to levels about 50 percent lower than in 1990. Although many countries recognize the need to curtail carbon emissions, there is considerable uncertainty about how much this will cost in individual countries, what measures can be undertaken in both the short and longer term, and how cost-effective specific interventions are in reducing emissions.
“Low-carbon” is quickly entering the lexicon of development, adding an important climatic dimension to the concept of economic sustainability. Low-Carbon Development for Mexico provides an economywide analysis of low-carbon options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America’s largest fossil fuel–consuming country. The study is the first of several low-carbon studies to be produced by the World Bank in key developing and middle-income countries.
Mexico was a logical choice for a low-carbon study for several reasons. At the international level, it has demonstrated strong commitment to global actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as reflected in its proactive stance in global climate discussions and the aggressive emission reduction target it announced at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Poznan in 2008. At home, Mexico recently published the Programa Especial de Cambio Climático (PECC), which sets out a broad program to address the impacts of climate change in Mexico and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions across all sectors.

This volume, intended to complement the PECC and other Mexican studies, presents the results of a two-year effort by a team of Mexican and international researchers to identify and evaluate high-priority measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The study makes use of two important tools for undertaking low-carbon assessments. The first is an economic methodology for estimating the costs of interventions across sectors. This methodology allows, for example, the costs of reducing emissions from introducing more efficient residential refrigerators to be compared with those achieved through afforestation or reforestation programs. A second tool is an integrated economic and emissions model that keeps track of annual emissions as well as needed investment costs over the coming two decades.
The need to reduce emissions associated with energy production and consumption—including from transport and power generation—is often at the heart of discussions about low-carbon development. The fastest emissions growth in Mexico over the past three decades has occurred because of rising energy consumption in the road transportation sector, and the growth in private automobiles and light trucks is expected to continue to fuel this growth in the future. This study presents new research on lowcarbon interventions in the transport sector, including measures to improve the efficiency of both new and used vehicles as well as measures to improve urban transportation. Because a large percentage of transportation energy use occurs in Mexico’s cities, there is significant potential for lowering greenhouse gas emissions by modifying the spatial organization of cities and improving the availability of public transportation infrastructure. Although major changes in urban design will take time to develop, other measures—such as investing in Metrobus-type systems, strengthening public transportation, and reorganizing bus and freight systems—can be implemented in the near term.
This study analyzes a range of energy efficiency options available in Mexico, including supply-side efficiency improvements in the electric power and oil and gas industries and demand-side electricity efficiency measures to limit high-growth energy-consuming activities, such as air conditioning and refrigeration. It also evaluates a range of renewable energy options that make use of the country’s vast wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and geothermal resources.
But low-carbon development is not only about energy production and consumption. In Mexico one of the most important sources of greenhouse gas emissions continues to be emissions from deforestation. The rate of deforestation has fallen steadily in Mexico over the past decades. Expanded programs for forest management, wildlife conservation, and efforts to increase the stock of forests can provide needed employment in rural areas and help make Mexican forests net absorbers of CO2 in the coming years.
A fundamental question often asked about low-cost mitigation options is why they are not already being undertaken. As the study shows, the availability of commercial technology and even low financial costs is often not enough to overcome barriers related to institutional and knowledge gaps, regulatory and legal constraints, or societal norms. Inability to surmount these “transactions costs” is typically at the root of the problem of why supposedly low-cost actions are not undertaken. To partially overcome this dilemma, one of the explicit criteria used in this study for identifying low-carbon measures was that they had already been implemented on some scale in Mexico or in a similar economy outside of Mexico. In order to mainstream low-carbon development, a package of new stimuli will be needed, including public and consumer education and training, public demonstrations, standards and regulations, and financial incentives.
The next few years will be critical for enacting a serious climate mitigation program, beginning with major industrial countries and quickly involving large developing countries. A number of mitigation studies have looked at the longer term, many of them focusing on the promise of new technologies to achieve significant reductions in carbon emissions. Although new technologies will be critical to meeting the longer-term emissions reduction goals needed to avoid the most severe impacts of climate change, many promising low-carbon technologies will not be commercially available for more than a decade, during which time the world will lose valuable degrees of freedom in stabilizing atmospheric concentrations if short-term options have not been simultaneously and vigorously pursued. One of the explicit objectives of this study was to identify a range of options that could contribute to meaningful emissions reductions over the next two decades and that could begin almost immediately. As new technologies are developed and the costs of current technologies fall, the range of options for lowcarbon development will become even broader.
Although this study focuses on Mexico, many of the low-carbon options presented—such as specific energy-efficiency and renewable energy technologies and urban transport or forestry programs—are likely to be applicable to other countries. It is our hope that both the methodologies and the findings presented in this volume will be of use to Mexico and other countries as they seek to define and implement low-carbon development.

Laura Tuck, Director
Sustainable Development Department
Latin America and Caribbean Region

 

Autores: Johnson, Todd M. / Alatorre, Claudio / Romo, Zayra / Liu, feng

State making, knowledge, and ignorance: Translation and concealment in Mexican Forestry Institutions









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Sinopsis:

Officials in theMexican environmental protection agency, the Secretaria deMedio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y de Pesca (SEMARNAP), deploy representations of agropastoral fires set by rural people to find urban allies, whereas officials and rural people in Oaxaca avoid mentioning fire and firewood cutting. Rigorous fire and firewood regulations are largely unenforced, producing official ignorance of burning and firewood cutting, partially because of the absence of fire and firewood forms within SEMARNAP and partially because of collusion and collaboration at the state level. This is compared with official knowledge of logging in indigenous forest communities in the state of Oaxaca to argue that official knowledge can be the product not of state-imposed projects of legibility but, rather, of alliances and entanglements between the state and politically powerful interlocutors. Practices of silencing and concealment are not the result of inadequate Mexican forestry institutions but are inherent to the process of knowledge production.

Keywords: Mexico, forestry, indigenous communities, ignorance, translation, actor-networks

 

Autores: Mathews, Andrew S.

From Exclusion to Ownership? Challenges and Opportunities in Advancing Forest Tenure Reform









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Sinopsis:

In 2002 Who Owns the World’s Forests?: Forest Tenure and Public Forests in Transition reported that in recent decades governments had begun to reduce their legal ownership and control of the world’s forests. The aim of this report is to measure whether this forest tenure transition continued in the 2002–2008 period, and to assess the implications of statutory forest tenure change for forest peoples, governments, and the global community.

This report finds that the transition did continue in the 2002–2008 period. The area of state ownership declined, and there were corresponding increases in the area of forests designated for use by communities and indigenous peoples, the area owned by communities and indigenous peoples, and the area owned by individuals and firms.

Though the tenure transition continues, progress is mixed. Among the main problems are that: governments retain a firm grip on the majority of forests and the forest tenure transition is slow; statutory reforms do not always result in more secure tenure; action on human, civil, political, and gender rights is also necessary to improve wellbeing, and progress on this front is slow; the area of industrial concessions still greatly exceeds the area of forest designated for use by, or owned by, communities and indigenous peoples; industrial claims on forest lands are increasing sharply, for biofuels production among other reasons; and some governments are performing poorly in carrying out the reform process.

However, there is good news: many new national reforms have been announced in 2002–2008 recognizing forest land access and ownership of local people; research results add to the evidence that strengthened forest tenure for communities and individuals can improve wellbeing, enable exclusion of outside claimants, and improve forest management and conservation; world attention to climate change offers the possibility of increasing the bargaining power of forest peoples; and there is evidence of growth in the movement to strengthen local forest tenure.

The report closes with recommendations on how the forest tenure reform process can be carried forward.

The role of deforestation risk and calibrated compensation in desingning payments









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Sinopsis:

This paper discusses the gain in efficiency from including deforestation risk as a targeting criterion in payments for environmental services (PES) programs.  We contrast two payment schemes that we simulate using data from Mexican common property forests: a flat payment scheme with a cap on allowable hectares per enrollee, similar to the program implemented in many countries, and a payment that takes deforestation risk and heterogeneity in land productivity into account.  We simulate the latter strategy both with and without a budget constraint.  Using observed past deforestation, we find that while risk-targeted payments are far more efficient, capped flat payments are more egalitarian. We also consider the characteristics of communities receiving payments from both programs.  We find that the risk-weighted scheme results in more payments to poor communities, and that these payments are more efficient than those made to non-poor ejidos.  Finally, we show that the risk of deforestation can be predicted quite precisely with indicators that are easily observable and that cannot be manipulated by the community.

 

Autores: Alix García, Jennifer / de Janvry, Alain / Sadoulet, Elisabeth

A spatial analysis of common property deforestation









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Sinopsis:

This paper develops and tests a theory of common property deforestation over space. The model examines both the spatial distribution of forest loss and the total amount of deforestation within a given community, showing how these outcomes are jointly determined. The model equations are estimated in a four-step process usng data from 318 Mexican common properties. In contrast to previous deforstation theories, this paper shows that the allocation of deforestation across space in dependent upon both the absolute and relative queality and location of each hectare of land in the same community and on the overall deforestation decision of the community ¡. Simultaneously, total deforestation depends upon the value of deforested land, which is determined by its physical attributes, as well as the characteristics of the community that affect its collective choice problem.  Smaller group size, higher secondary education, and greater inequality correspond to lower deforestation.

 

Autores: Alix García, Jennifer

An exploration of the positive effect of inequality on common property forests









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Sinopsis:

This paper analyzes the household level forces driving the positive impact of inequality on common property forest cover in Mexico. A game theoretic model demonstrates that when common property goods are complementary to private inputs in production, an increase in wealth inequality can lead to a decrease in exploitation of the commons. Data from 350 Mexican common properties show that as inequality increases, those on the lower end of the land distribution are less likely to use the commons.
The data also show a negative correlation between inequality and poverty. Alternative hypotheses for these results are considered.

 

Autores: Alix García, Jennifer

A Tale of two communities: Explaining Deforestation in Mexico.









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Sinopsis:

Deforestation policies in Mexico need to recognize heterogeneity in community\’s management schemes. In communities that extract wood from the forest for profit, forestry projects generate funds whose investment in public goods increases the value of standing forest to those not receiving direct dividends from the projects. Increases in such investment help decrease deforestation. In communities with other livelihoods, deforestation decreases with the community´s ability to form a coalition that cooperates in reducing forest clearing. This is easier in smaller communities with more experienced leaders. Anaysis using data collected in 2002 combined with satellite imagery verifies the models predictions.

 

Autores: Alix García, Jennifer / de Janvry, Alain / Sadoulet, Elisabeth

Local perceptions of forest certification for community-based enterprises









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Sinopsis:

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification has been promoted as a way to encourage and recognize community-based forest enterprises (CFEs). However, certification has proved more difficult for CFEs than expected, and few certified operations have achieved the highly anticipated market benefits of certification. This has led to questioning of the compatibility of certification with CFEs, though few studies have directly asked local CFE actors their perceptions on this issue. This study investigates perceptions of certification for two CFEs in Brazil’s western Amazon. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to determine the positive and negative aspects of certification as perceived by community members, their principal support organizations, and other key stakeholders, (2) to identify the relative importance of these perceived positive and negative aspects, and (3) to analyze the differences in perceptions between actors. Data were collected through structured interviews and a review of pertinent documents.
Overall, the most positive aspects were economic and social, and the most negative aspects concerned the certification process and, to a lesser extent, the associated economic expenditures. Community members typically scored the positive aspects higher and the negative aspects lower than the support organizations. This is likely due to differences in roles and vantage points of these actors. In general, informants agreed that positive aspects of certification outweighed negative ones. This stands in contrast to some communities in other parts of Latin America that are contemplating dropping certification.
Two particular conditions may have enabled operations in this study to overcome common constraints for CFEs: (1) membership in a regional producers group, and (2) strong political, technical, and financial support from the state government. Their experiences specifically highlight the need to adapt the certification process for CFEs and demonstrate that obtaining market benefits is possible.

 

Autores: Humphries, Shoana S. / Kainer, Karen A.

Empresas Forestales Comunitarias En Las Américas: Estudios De Caso









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Sinopsis:

COMUNIDADES FORESTALES OAXAQUEÑAS: LUCHA PARA EL MERCADO LIBRE MADERERO

Al hablar de \”comunidades forestales\” en Oaxaca, lo cual es normal hoy en día, nos viene a la mente la imagen de no pocos pueblos indígenas que aprovechan su bosque comunalmente; ya no es raro ver camiones, grúas, tractores, aserraderos, talleres y fábricas de propiedad comunal. Sin embargo, tras esta imagen se oculta la historia de la explotación de los bosques comunales a escala comercial, que abarca apenas un poco más de cuarenta años.

El carácter mismo de \”comunidad forestal\” es un producto de estos cuarenta años. No se les distinguía así antes de que llegaran las primeras empresas madereras a Oaxaca en 1949 trayendo consigo la forma comercial-industrial de explotación, totalmente distinta a la tradicional. Hasta antes que llegaran las fábricas, los comuneros43 sólo cortaban un árbol para satisfacer sus necesidades básicas, tales como la de construir sus casas, y muy poco para vender la madera. Antes de aplicar el hacha pedían perdón al espíritu del bosque, el chaneque, por lastimarlo, explicándole los motivos del daño causado. Pero con la llegada de las empresas todo el proceso se transformó, y con él, las comunidades mismas.

Veremos cómo un buen número de comunidades forestales oaxaqueñas fueron adquiriendo su nuevo carácter de sujeto socia del proceso forestal a escala comercial, abriendo el tradicionalmente monopólico mercado de la madera al juego de la libre competencia. En el transcurso de la década de los cincuentas a la de los ochentas, 60 de las 83 comunidades forestales oaxaqueñas lograron empezar a vender sus productos forestales en el mercado libre.

Cubierta esta primera etapa, el reto a enfrentar por estas comunidades ha sido doble.

Primero, superar el carácter artesanal de su forma tradicional de extracción en el monte que las limita a la venta de volúmenes pequeños o a la venta de madera en pié sólo desarrollando la capacidad de explotar sus montes mediante métodos en mayor o menor medida mecanizados podrían ingresar de manera definitiva al mercado de la madera \”en rollo\”. Y segundo, establecer y consolidar sus propios aserraderos para poder ingresar al mercado de la madera tren tabla\”. Las comunidades que lograron avanzar frente a estos dos retos desde 1983 hasta principios de los años noventas lo hicieron mediante la constitución de sus propias empresas forestales, como sujeto social comunitario forestal-industrial. Son 43 de las 60 comunidades oaxaqueñas a que nos referimos antes las que han logrado adquirir ese carácter en alguna medida.

En esta segunda etapa las comunidades han alcanzado resultados diversos. Las más exitosas- como la de Ixtlán, han alcanzado importantes logros económicos para sus empresas forestales, así como mejoras en la conservación de sus recursos naturales. Su capacidad organizativa les ha permitido retener una buena parte del excedente económico que salía antes de sus respectivas regiones-desarrollando procesos de capitalización que eran impensables en las décadas precedentes- revirtiendo los beneficios a favor de un mejoramiento económico y social de sus propios comuneros en cada caso. El nuevo papel de varias de estas comunidades en el manejo de los recursos forestales se ha desarrollado respetando lo fundamental de su tradición-tanto en lo referente a su consideración hacia el bosque cuanto en lo que respecta a sus formas propias de organización pero desarrollando procesos en que se han ido apropiando de tecnologías, formas organizativas y esquemas de gestión empresarial de origen externo.

 

Autores: Abardía Moros, Francisco / Solano Solano, Carlos

Community-based Forest Enterprises. Their status and potential in tropical countries









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Sinopsis:

Small and medium scale enterprises, including those owned by communities, are widely known to comprise the bulk of forest industry globally. Approximately 30 million of the 47 million permanent jobs in the forest industry are found in informal, small enterprises, most of which have less than 20 employees (Poschen 2001). While statistics for the forest sector are generally not complete for the tropical producer countries, surveys of specific countries and regions and information from other sources confirm that small and medium scale enterprises are the main component of forest industry in these countries as well (FAO 2005, WRI et al. 2005). Small and medium scale enterprises make up 96 percent of all enterprises in Brazil and 20 percent of GDP and the bulk of Brazilian forest sector operations (May et al. 2003). They comprise 95 percent of all forestry enterprise activity in India (Saigal and Bose 2003) accounting for 500,000 jobs of which only 150,000 are in the formal sector. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that the contribution of forestry to employment is more than double that in global statistics when the small scale, community and informal sectors are included. This is not only a developing country phenomenon; SMEs provide more than 50% of the wood harvested in the EU countries and the United States, and generate a majority of the employment in processing and contracting (UNECE/FAO 2000). Like all forest enterprises, CFEs have a mixed record, with numerous cases of failures as well as successes, but it is only in a few countries that favorable conditions have been in place over a sufficiently long timeframe, to assess their development or viability over time. This scoping identifies some shared trends for the emergence and development of CFEs in a range of different tropical countries that indicate a high level of promise overall.

 

Autores: Molnar, Augusta / Liddle, Megan / Bracer, Carina / Khare, Arvind / White, Andy / Bull, Justin

Good Wood, How Forest Certification Helps the Environment









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Sinopsis:

Forests are more than a symbolic ideal of wilderness, more than quiet places to enjoy nature. Forest ecosystems — trees, soil, undergrowth, all living things in a forest — are critical to maintaining life on earth. Forests help us breathe by creating oxygen and filtering pollutants from the air, and help stabilize the global climate by absorbing carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas. They soak up rainfall like giant sponges, preventing floods and purifying water that we drink. They provide habitat for 90 percent of the plant and animal species that live on land, as well as homelands for many of the earth’s last remaining indigenous cultures. Forests are commercially important, too; they yield valuable resources like wood, rubber and medicinal plants, including plants used to create cancer drugs. Harvesting these resources provides employment for local communities.

Healthy forests are a critical part of the web of life. Yet more than half of the earth’s original forest cover has been destroyed due to human activity such as agriculture, development and logging. Much of the loss has occurred within the past three decades. Protecting the earth’s remaining forest cover is now an urgent task.

http://www.nrdc.org/land/forests/qcert.asp

The Community Forests of Mexico / Managing for Sustainable Landscapes











Sinopsis:

The Community Forests of Mexico
Managing for Sustainable Landscapes

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I: Introduction, History, and Policy
    • Chapter 1: Community Managed in the Strong Sense of the Phrase: The Community Forest Enterprises of Mexico (David Barton Bray, Leticia Merino-Pérez, and Deborah Barry)
    • Chapter 2: Contested Terrain: Forestry Regimes and Community Responses in Northeastern Michoacán, 1940-2000 (Christopher R. Boyer)
    • Chapter 3: Forest and Conservation Policies and Their Impact on Forest Communities in Mexico (Leticia Merino-Pérez and Gerardo Segura-Warnholtz)
    • Chapter 4: Challenges for Forest Certification and Community Forestry in Mexico (Patricia Gerez-Fernández and Enrique Alatorre-Guzmán)
  • Part II: Social Processes and Community Forestry
    • Chapter 5: Indigenous Community Forest Management in the Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca (Francisco Chapela)
    • Chapter 6: Empowering Community-Based Forestry in Oaxaca: The Union of Forest Communities and Ejidos of Oaxaca, 1985-1996 (Rodolfo López-Arzola)
    • Chapter 7: New Organizational Strategies in Community Forestry in Durango, Mexico (Peter Leigh Taylor)
    • Chapter 8: Community Adaptation or Collective Breakdown? The Emergence of “Work Groups” in Two Forestry Ejidos in Quintana Roo, Mexico (Peter R. Wilshusen)
  • Part III: Ecology and Land Use Change in Community Forestry
    • Chapter 9: Ecological Issues in Community Tropical Forest Management in Quintana Roo, Mexico (Henricus F. M. Vester and María Angélica Navarro-Martínez)
    • Chapter 10: Land Use/Cover Change in Community-Based Forest Management Regions and Protected Areas in Mexico (Elvira Durán-Medina, Jean-François Mas, and Alejandro Velázquez)
  • Part IV: The Economics of Community Forestry
    • Chapter 11: Vertical Integration in the Community Forestry Enterprises of Oaxaca (Camille Antinori)
    • Chapter 12: The Managerial Economics of Sustainable Community Forestry in Mexico: A Case Study of El Balcón, Técpan, Guerrero (Juan Manuel Torres-Rojo, Alejandro Guevara-Sanginés, and David Barton Bray)
  • Part V: Global Comparisons and Conclusions
    • Chapter 13: The Global Significance of Mexican Community Forestry (Dan Klooster and Shrinidhi Ambinakudige)
    • Chapter 14: Community Forestry in Mexico: Twenty Lessons Learned and Four Future Pathways (David Barton Bray)
  • Appendix: Acronyms Used
  • About the Contributors
  • Index

Puede encontrar el libro en:

http://utpress.utexas.edu/index.php/books/bracom

Compensation for Environmental Services and Rural Communities; Lessons from the Americas









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Sinopsis:

In principle, payments for environmental services – such as watershed management, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration – can advance the goals of both environmental protection and poverty reduction. A review of recent initiatives in the Americas suggests, however, that this desirable combination is not automatic. If payments for environmental services (PES) schemes are to be an effective vehicle for strengthening livelihoods in poor rural communities, they must be designed with that objective firmly in mind. This paper draws key lessons from diverse experiences in Costa Rica, Mexico, Brazil, El Salvador, and New York.

La descentralización democratica de los Recursos Naturales; La Institucionalización de la Participación Popular









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Sinopsis:

Con el propósito de aumentar la eficiencia de la gestión ambiental y mejorar la equidad y la justicia para las poblaciones locales, muchos ambientalistas abogan por una gestión participativa de los recursos naturales basada en la comunidad. La descentralización democrática es un manera prometedora de institucionalizar y de aumentar la participación popular, que hace que sea eficaz la gestión participativa de los recursos naturales basada en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las actuales reformas de descentralización se caracterizan por una insuficiente transferencia de poderes hacia las instituciones locales, bajo la estricta fiscalización del gobierno central. Es frecuente que estas instituciones locales no representen a las comunidades ni sean responsables ante ellas. No obstante, es posible extraer algunas lecciones y recomendaciones de los limitados experimentos de descentralización que han tenido lugar en diferentes sitios.

La descentralización requiere transferencia del poder al igual que representación responsable. En la identificación de poderes apropiados y suficientes para su transferencia, resultarían muy útiles los principios de distribución del poder, llamados principios de subsidiaridad ambiental. Estos principios podrían desarrollarse para guiar la división de poderes para la toma de decisiones, la normatización, la ejecución, la aplicación y la solución de controversias entre los niveles de gobierno y entre las instituciones a cada nivel. También es importante la seguridad de las transferencias de poder. Los representantes locales siguen estando sujetos y rindiendo cuenta a las autoridades centrales cuando sus poderes pueden otorgarse y quitarse al arbitrio de los agentes centrales. Para los que la población local pueda gozar de los derechos ciudadanos en lugar de permanecer como sujetos dependientes, sus representantes locales requieren un campo de poderes y derechos discrecionales seguros. Este ámbito de derechos seguros se debe establecer por la ley y protegerse mediante la representación y el derecho al recurso. La mayoría de las transferencias que se están llevando a cabo carecen de seguridad.

La selección de instituciones locales representativas y responsables es la clave para la equidad, la justicia y la eficiencia. Se considera que la rendición de cuentas a la población por parte de quienes toman las decisiones al nivel local -es decir, la democracia local- es el mecanismo para lograr una mayor equidad y eficiencia. Cuando se seleccionan órganos que tienen responsabilidad local, como son los gobiernos locales elegidos, se fortalece la democracia. Cuando en ausencia de órganos fiscalizadores representativos se escogen instituciones con sus intereses propios, norepresentativas, o autocráticascomo es el caso de los grupos de interés, las organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONGs), o las autoridades consuetudinariasexiste el riesgo de fortalecer su autocracia y debilitar la democracia. El pluralismo sin representación favorece a los grupos más organizados y poderosos. Favorece la acaparación por parte de la élite.

Poderes seguros y representación responsable van de la mano. Es peligroso transferir poder sin una representación responsable. Establecer una representación responsable sin poderes carece de sentido. La mayoría de las reformas de descentralización establecen solamente lo uno o lo otro. Una explicación parcial es que muchos agentes del gobierno central recelan de la descentralización y, en consecuencia, la bloquean. Por impedir la transferencia de poderes significativos hacia los órganos democráticos locales, o por transferirlos a agentes locales que sólo rinden cuentas al gobierno central, las agencias ambientales y otros ministerios sectoriales obstaculizan el avance de la descentralización. Hasta la fecha, siguen sin percibirse los beneficios potenciales de la descentralización debido a que el discurso gubernamental no ha resultado en la promulgación de las leyes necesarias, o bien, allí donde existen leyes de descentralización, éstas no se han implementado.

La Institucionalización de la Participación Popular representativas, o autocráticascomo es el caso de los grupos de interés, las organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONGs), o las autoridades consuetudinariasexiste el riesgo de fortalecer su autocracia y debilitar la democracia. El pluralismo sin representación favorece a los grupos más organizados y poderosos. Favorece la acaparación por parte de la élite.

Poderes seguros y representación responsable van de la mano. Es peligroso transferir poder sin una representación responsable. Establecer una representación responsable sin poderes carece de sentido. La mayoría de las reformas de descentralización establecen solamente lo uno o lo otro. Una explicación parcial es que muchos agentes del gobierno central recelan de la descentralización y, en consecuencia, la bloquean. Por impedir la transferencia de poderes significativos hacia los órganos democráticos locales, o por transferirlos a agentes locales que sólo rinden cuentas al gobierno central, las agencias ambientales y otros ministerios sectoriales obstaculizan el avance de la descentralización. Hasta la fecha, siguen sin percibirse los beneficios potenciales de la descentralización debido a que el discurso gubernamental no ha resultado en la promulgación de las leyes necesarias, o bien, allí donde existen leyes de descentralización, éstas no se han implementado.

Es peligroso transferir poderes sin una representación responsable. El establecimiento de una representación responsable sin poderes carece de sentido.

Sin embargo, aún las descentralizaciones parciales han tenido ciertos resultados sociales y ambientales positivos. Además de poderes significativos y de la rendición de cuentas, un complejo conjunto de otras medidas puede afectar tantos resultados. Estas incluyen las normas ambientales, las políticas para mejorar la equidad, la educación cívica, la solución de controversias y las medidas de protección legal para organizaciones activistas. Las normas ambientales son un complemento necesario y lógico de las reformas de descentralización, ya que definen los límites y las libertades de la acción discrecional local. Podrá ser necesario que el gobierno central emita un mandato para que el gobierno local incluya a las poblaciones excluidas y les brinde servicios, dado que la descentralización no compensa en su totalidad muchas de las inequidades sociales, incluida la marginalización o exclusión de las mujeres ante los procesos políticos, así como la pobreza y la exclusión de los grupos marginales. La descentralización puede conducir a conflictos, en particular cuando implica la transferencia de poderes para el manejo y uso de los recursos naturales. Por consiguiente, se necesitan mecanismos de mediación y el acceso al recurso legal. Es preciso que las poblaciones y las autoridades locales conozcan la ley si van a actuar sobre los derechos y las obligaciones acompañan la descentralización. Mediante la educación cívica se puede informar a la población sobre sus derechos y obligaciones, elevando sus expectativas de reforma, representación, justicia y servicios significativos. Asimismo, las leyes que habilitan la gente para que se organice y exija reformas y respuestas de los gobiernos pueden facilitar cambios positivos.

Los gobiernos centrales desempeñan funciones claves en una descentralización eficaz, a pesar del hecho de que una gran parte de la resistencia hacia la descentralización proviene del ámbito del gobierno. La descentralización no significa reducir o desmantelar el gobierno central; más bien apela a una gobernabilidad central y local democrática de apoyo mutuo. Un gobierno central fuerte es necesario para establecer objetivos nacionales, derechos civiles, y un marco legal que facilite la organización, la representación y el derecho al recurso de los civiles. Asimismo, presta servicios ejecutorios y de apoyo mutuo. Las agencias externas (donantes y ONGs) pueden apoyar a los gobiernos en sus esfuerzos de descentralización y ayudar a establecer medidas de acompañamiento.

Contrario al papel positivo que pueden desempeñar, los gobiernos, los donantes y las organizaciones ambientales ya están creando un contragolpe a la descentralización con el argumento de que no ha funcionado. Pero el experimento de la descentralización apenas ha comenzado. El discurso rara vez se ha convertido en ley o en práctica y, donde lo ha sido, la población necesita tiempo para comprender e invertir en el proceso. Es imposible medir el éxito de la descentralización antes de que el experimento se haya puesto a prueba. La descentralización necesitará tiempo y un serio esfuerzo.

 

Autores: Ribot, Jesse C.

A Tale of Two Communities: Explaining Deforestation in Mexico









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Sinopsis:

Explaining land use change in Mexico requires understanding the behavior of the local institutions involved. We develop two theories to explain deforestation in communities with and without forestry projects, where the former involves a process of side payments to non-members of the community and the latter of partial cooperation among community members. Data collected in 2002 combined with satellite imagery are used to test these theories. For the forestry villages, we establish a positive relationship between the distribution of profits as dividends instead of public goods and forest loss. For communities not engaged in forestry projects, deforestation is largely related to the ability of the community to induce the formation of a coalition of members that cooperates in not encroaching. This happens more easily in smaller communities with xperienced leaders. A disturbing result of the analysis is that deforestation is higher when a community engages in forestry projects, even after properly accounting for self-selection into this activity. This suggests that forestry projects as they now exist in Mexico are not sustainable and contribute to the deforestation problem.

 

Autores: Alix García, Jennifer / de Janvry, Alain / Sadoulet, Elisabeth

¿Sería factible un modelo de comercio justo para la Certificación Forestal? Una discusión de posibilidades









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Sinopsis:

La certificación forestal y etiquetas relacionadas están ganando atención hoy como un instrumento que convierte a los mercados globales en una fuerza para mitigar en vez de promover la degradación ambiental. Para el 2002, alrededor del 3 por ciento del bosque mundial de 3,6 mil milliones de hectáres habían sido certificados como bosques manejados sustentablemente bajo varios esquemas de certificación (Atyi y Simula 200: 19; Bass et al. 2001: 42). Aunque la certificación forestal originó durante los primeros años de la década de las noventa a partir de movimientos públicos masivos de consumidores en contra de la desforestación tropical (Counsell and Terje Loraas 2002: 12), hoy la mayor parte de las áreas certificados se encuentran en bosques boreales y templados del Norte, y en propiedad estatal y industrial, y no en los bosques naturales y tropicales del sur global. Además, las comunidades que son propietarios o que manejan una parte de los bosques del Sur, un grupo que crece rápidamente, encuentran barreras significativas al acceso a la certificación y sus beneficios. Si se va a convertir a la certificación en un instrumento más eficaz en pro de la protección de bosques amenazados en el sur global, hay que dedicar atención a los obstáculos que los operadores de bosques comunitarios enfrentan al acceso a la certificación y a los mercados de productos certificados. Varios autores han recomendado la consideración de una versión comercio justo de la certificación forestal que se dirige a la forestería comunitaria en el sur global (ver, por ejemplo, Bray et al. 2002; Bray y Merino Pérez 2002; Kruedener 2000; Molnar 2003).

Este estudio se origina en mi participación en la investigación colaborativa con los Grupos CSU y Norte/Sur de Investigación sobre el Comercio Justo acerca de la initiativa del Comercio Justo de Café (Murray et al. 2003). También sale de mi participación en el esquema de FSC como miembro de equipos interdisciplinarios de certificación que evaluaban el manejo de bosques comunitarios en México. La experiencia de Comercio Justo provee lecciones útiles para la certificación forestal comunitaria. Abajo propongo un esquema preliminar para explorar los obstáculos y las posibilidades de un modelo “comercio justo” a la certificación forestal comunitaria.

Una versión final del documento, en inglés, está disponible en este link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0743016705000689

 

Autor: Taylor, Peter Leigh

A new agenda for forest conservation and poverty reduction: Making Markets Work for Low-Income Producers









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Sinopsis:

The future of the world’s forests and the future of millions of the world’s poorest people are inextricably linked. Rural poverty is concentrated in many areas where the world’s biodiversity is most threatened. More than a billion people now live within the world’s 19 forest biodiversity “hotspots” and population growth in the world’s tropical wilderness areas is 3.1 percent, over twice the world’s average rate of growth. Over 90 percent of those who live on less than a dollar a day depend fully or in part on forest products for their livelihoods. The dominant models of forest management and protection are increasingly inappropriate in the face of this reality. Large-scale logging in commercial forest concessions, industrial forest plantations and public protected areas all deprive poor communities of lands and forests they traditionally controlled and contribute little, if anything, to rural livelihoods Even social forestry initiatives that do seek to restore these rights typically seek to sharply restrict commercial use by local people. A fundamental re-assessment of the role of forests in rural development, and the role of local people in forest conservation, is urgently needed.
Indeed, changes in forest resources, markets, and governance offer new opportunities for low-income producers. At least a quarter of the forests in developing countries are now officially owned or administered by indigenous and other communities. Millions of smallholder farmers, especially those in forest-scarce but agriculturally less favored
regions, are growing trees not only to recover local ecosystem services, but also to meet rapidly growing domestic demand for forest products. In some areas, forest and farm tree resources are the principal assets of the poor and the most proximate opportunity for poverty alleviation.
Unfortunately, however, low-income producers presently benefit only marginally from commercial forestry activities. Forest markets pose formidable barriers to profitable participation by the rural poor. Current market trends, if unabated, will continue to deny these poor people opportunities to fully use their forest resources for their own development.
Market policies that discriminate against community producers keep prices low and limit income opportunities. Policies being promoted by some environmental groups and industry lobbies would mean that in the near future most industrial wood could come from industrial plantations and an increasingly consolidated forest industry, effectively cutting off forest and farm communities from critical income opportunities. Local producers often do not have access to sufficient capital, market contacts and information, or technology to exploit new market opportunities. They lack support to compete effectively in either export or domestic markets. Unless a major global effort is made to secure and develop community forest opportunities over the next decade, rural communities will not be able to capitalize on their forest assets—and will thus have little incentive to keep them.
This paper by Sara J. Scherr, Andy White and David Kaimowitz lays out a set of strategies to promote forest conservation in ways that positively contribute to local livelihoods and community development in low- and middle-income countries.1 The authors fully recognize the critical importance of the “safety net” functions of forests for the poor. But they also identify specific market niches where large numbers of low-income producers have, or could develop, a competitive market advantage. They identify important commercial opportunities for private forest industry, forest enterprises and business service providers to partner with low-income forest producers. They also explore alternative strategies to recognize, encourage and reward forest conservation by local forest owners and users. Real world cases described in the paper illustrate their potential and feasibility, as well as the difficulties to be overcome. Critical to achieving these benefits will be removing present policy barriers to local market participation, in particular securing forest use and ownership rights, reducing excessive regulatory burdens, “leveling the playing field” for local producers in forest markets, and involving local producers in forest policy negotiations. The authors identify key roles in the strategy for local people’s organizations and federations, for private forest industries and investors, for rural development and conservation institutions, and for policymakers.

Readers from all these diverse perspectives will find it of value. We believe that with strategic action over the next generation, local producers can play a much larger role in the forest sector, benefiting much more from forest markets and contributing much more to forest conservation.

MICHAEL JENKINS, President; DAVID KAIMOWITZ, Director-General

Forest Trends Center for International Forestry Research

 

Autores: Scherr, Sara J. / White, Andy / Kaimowitz, David

¿De quién son los bosques del mundo? Tenencia forestal y bosques públicos en transición









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Sinopsis:

Hasta hace poco, la respuesta a la pregunta sobre a quién pertenecen los bosques del mundo era bastante sencilla. Durante la mayor parte de la historia moderna, fueron los gobiernos quienes legalmente poseían la mayoría de los bosques. Pero esta situación de propiedad pública forestal está empezando a cambiar. Desde fines de los años ochenta, algunos de los gobiernos de los países con mayor cobertura boscosa han comenzado a reconsiderar y reformar sus políticas de propiedad forestal. Hay un reconocimiento cada vez mayor de los derechos de los pueblos indígenas y otras comunidades locales, aunado a una convergencia entre las agendas de desarrollo económico y protección ambiental.

Este informe intenta juntar información para dar una visión global sobre el tema la tenencia forestal. Se presenta un nuevo conjunto de datos oficiales compilados y agregados sobre la tenencia forestal en 24 de los 30 países con mayor cobertura boscosa y un resumen de los resultados del análisis de estos datos. Luego se presentan tres principales tendencias globales en la propiedad pública del bosque que ilustran los cambios en la tenencia forestal. Y por último, el informe concluye con una descripción de las principales implicaciones resultantes de los datos y de las oportunidades que existen para que los actores clave tomen decisiones importantes sobre tenencia forestal.

 

Autores: White, Andy / Martín, Alejandra

Global registry of community-based work. Future Generations.









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Sinopsis:

Moving toward bridging the gap between research and practice in community-based work, the global registry of community-based work was launched during August to December 2003.? The goal of the registry work were 1) to develop an initial list of community-based programs worldwide, 2) to summarize the descriptive information of participant community-based programs, and 3) to explore whether survey research could be used to test theories on community-based work.

Carbon Forestry and the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism: A Legal Analysis.









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Sinopsis:

The document emphasises the importance of carbon forestry projects under the Clean Development Mechanisim of the Kyoto protocol and argue that even under a variety of proposed interpretations the Protocol does not exclude or place significant limits on the eligibility of carbon forestry projects. Some of the arguments that are presented are the following:

  • Carbon forestry projects in tropical forests are among the most cost-effective means of achieving climate change mitigation.
  • Carbon forestry projects are a vital ingredient of any climate change regulatory regime. In addition, they can have a number of other important benefits, like the protection of endangered animal and plant species and their habitats, transfer of technology and know-how related to sustainable forestry and agriculture, and the development of alternative sources of income for rural communities.
  • Site-based measurements of emissions resulting from forest activities now can be performed with high confidence. Measuring the emissions impact of a carbon forestry project is not significantly more difficult than measuring the emissions impact of an energy sector project.

 

Autores: Rotter, Jonathan C. / Danish, Kyle W.

Mexico, the leader in Community Forest Management









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Sinopsis:

Thanks to its experience with community forestry projects, Mexico can provide tips on how to manage forests while fomenting the development of local economies in 2011, the International Year of Forests.

 

Autor: Godoy, Emilio