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Descargar País:

Lugar: Tallahassee
Editorial: UNAM
Año de publicación: 2000
Idioma: Inglés
Autores: Klooster, Daniel / Masera, Omar

Community forest management in Mexico; carbon mitigation and biodiversity conservation through rural development

For developing countries like Mexico, local deforestation aggregates to global environmental change through biodiversity loss and emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Meanwhile, the generally poor people who inhabit forests face their own, local, environment and development problems. These often include water-borne diseases, malnutrition, inadequate healthcare, poor education, indoor air pollution, transportation di, and lack of local income opportunities.
They use forests to meet these needs, sometimes under patterns of use that lead to clearing and degradation. Both deforestation and exclusionary conservation policies, therefore, imply lost opportunities to meet rural needs through wood production, non-timber forest products, tourism, water management, and compensation for environmental services. Community forest management has the potential to resolve this dilemma and capture synergies between local and global environment/development interests.
In Mexico, community forest management contrasts starkly to a generally bleak panorama of forest degradation and deforestation. Hundreds of communities with small logging and forest management businesses maintain forest cover, restore density and commercial productivity in previously mismanaged forests, and reforest abandoned agricultural areas (World Bank, 1995; Klooster, 1999; Bray and Wexler, 1996). Their experience suggests that community-based forest management has an important role to play in reversing processes of deforestation, sequestering carbon, and promoting rural development. Realizing this potential, however, requires social investment, capital, technical assistance, and training in business administration and forest management. The global bene”ts of carbon mitigation associated with community forest conservation could help leverage needed investments in local forest management capacity.
This article is organized as follows. In Section 1 we introduce the concept of forest management in the context of compensation strategies for environmental services, arguing that community forest management in developing countries should be included in the clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol.
In Section 2, we present the case of community forest management in Mexico. First, we describe the forest resource, deforestation dynamics, and carbon mitigation potential of Mexican forests. Second, we outline the social context of forest protection and management in Mexico and describe the evolution, extent, and success of community forest management. Third, we assess some of the barriers to promoting it. We conclude the case study section with an analysis of current Mexican forest policies that favor plantations over natural forest management, but do contain an incipient communitysupport strategy. We point out how compensation for environmental services could create a correspondence between local demands for supportive forest policy and state planners’ interests in foreign exchange and balance of trade issues. A mechanism to compensate for environmental services should support communitybased strategies for natural forest management because this approach delivers carbon mitigation and biodiversity conservation as a byproduct of rural development.

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